Bibliography of Lake Malawi Biology (with emphasis on fish systematics, ecology, and evolution)   Compiled by Michael K. Oliver, Ph.D.
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Latest additions or corrections: 17 September 2014

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        Hot paper  Research paper: Brawand, Wagner, Malinsky et al. (2014) on The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish

Latest publications 2014

The bibliography, now including ~1730 items, starts here. After some highlights, there are annual lists of publications appearing in 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, and 2001 which will assist in locating current and recent research on Rift Lake fishes and other organisms (additions to these lists are flagged as New for at least 1 month). Many studies of Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika (and even some on riverine fishes) are now included, in view of their relevance to understanding the Lake Malawi fauna and its history. Hundreds of "gray literature" citations are included, as are limnology, conservation, and aquaculture publications on Lake Malawi or its species. Also listed are earth science publications (paleolimnology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, biogeochemistry) relating to the geologic context of Lake Malawi. The vast aquarist literature is ignored, except for a few articles of scientific importance.

Numerous (~285) pop-up Abstracts are accessible by clicking a popup abstract icon. These are abstracts or summaries — by the original authors, except where noted — available locally at this site, in addition to ~600 links to abstracts (often paired with doi: links) available at PubMed, various publishers' sites, and elsewhere. (JavaScript must be enabled, and popup blockers may need to be disabled in your browser's options or preferences to view these popup pages.) Also watch for the download full text icon, permitting free downloading of ~480 entire publications, served from this and other sites (notably, those of Biodiversity Heritage Library, Karen Carleton, Martin Genner, Tom Kocher, Axel Meyer, Todd Streelman, and George Turner). Please note that I have verified the citations of virtually all the fish taxonomy publications, but many other items are unverified and a few citations are incomplete. I am always happy to be informed of new publications, omissions, errors, and dead links (please email me).

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Abstracts of doctoral dissertations about Lake Malawi biology Updated 28 February 2012
Malawi Fisheries Bulletins  (JavaScript must be enabled to view dissertation list and bulletin list)

A few highlights:

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Research published in 2014:

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Research published in 2013:

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Research published in 2012:

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Research published in 2011: (Thanks to Martin Genner and Dieter Anseeuw for providing overlooked 2011 publications!)

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Research published in 2010: (Thanks once more to Martin Genner for providing overlooked 2010 publications!)

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Research published in 2009: (Special thanks to Martin Genner for alerting me to a slew of 2008 & 2009 publications!)

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Research published in 2008:

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Research published in 2007:

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Abdallah, A.M., and D.R. Barton. 2003. Environmental factors controlling the distributions of benthic invertebrates on rocky shores of Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 202-215. Abstract
Abila, R., M. Barluenga, J. Engelken, A. Meyer, and W. Salzburger. 2004. Population-structure and genetic diversity in a haplochromine fish cichlid of a satellite lake of Lake Victoria. Molecular Ecology 13 (9): 2589-2602. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02270.x Abstract download full text Agnese, J.F., and G.G. Teugels. 2001. The Bathyclarias-Clarias species flock. A new model to understand rapid speciation in African Great lakes. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Série III - Sciences de la Vie - Life Sciences 324 (8): 683-688. popup abstract
Agnese, J.F., and G.G. Teugels. 2005. Insight into the phylogeny of African Clariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes): Implications for their body shape evolution, biogeography, and taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36 (3): 546-553. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.028 Abstract [Includes consideration of Bathyclarias]
Ahl, E. 1924. Über einen neuen Cichliden aus Ost-Africa. Zoologischer Anzeiger: 86-87. [Tilapia chungruruensis, which would be the senior synonym of Oreochromis (Nyasalapia) karongae if the two are found to be conspecific]
Ahl, E. 1927. Einige neue Fische der Familie Cichlidae. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin (1926): 51-62. download full text
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Albertson, R.C. 2008. Morphological divergence predicts habitat partitioning in a Lake Malawi cichlid species complex. Copeia (3): 689-698. doi:10.1643/CG-07-217 Abstract
Albertson, R.C., and T.D. Kocher. 1999. Shape differences in the trophic apparatus of two Lake Malawi cichlid species and their hybrid progeny - A landmark-based morphometric approach. American Zoologist 39 (5): 681. [Meeting abstract; see following publication]
Albertson, R.C., and T.D. Kocher. 2001. Assessing morphological differences in an adaptive trait: a landmark-based morphometric approach. Journal of Experimental Zoology 289 (6): 385-403. doi:10.1002/jez.1020 Abstract download full text [Jaw and neurocranial morphology in Labeotropheus fuelleborni, Metriaclima (=Maylandia) zebra, and their hybrids.]
Albertson, R.C., and T.D. Kocher. 2005. Genetic architecture sets limits on transgressive segregation in hybrid cichlid fishes. Evolution 59 (3): 686-690. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2005.tb01027.x Abstract [In Labeotropheus fuelleborni and Metriaclima [=Maylandia] zebra]
Albertson, R.C., and T.D. Kocher. 2006. Genetic and developmental basis of cichlid trophic diversity. Heredity 97: 211-221. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800864 Abstract download full text
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Albertson, R.C., J.A. Markert, P.D. Danley, and T.D. Kocher. 1999. Phylogeny of a rapidly evolving clade: The cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, east Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96 (9, April 27): 5107-5110. Abstract download full text PDF
Albertson, R.C., K.E. Powder, Y. Hu, K.P. Coyle, R.B. Roberts, and K.J. Parsons. 2014. Genetic basis of continuous variation in the levels and modular inheritance of pigmentation in cichlid fishes. Molecular Ecology [epub ahead of print]. [Involves a genetic cross between Labeotropheus fuelleborni and Tropheops 'red cheek'] doi:10.1111/mec.12900 Abstract
Albertson, R.C., J.T. Streelman, and T.D. Kocher. 2003a. Directional selection has shaped the oral jaws of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100 (9): 5252-5257. Abstract download full text download full text
Albertson, R.C., J.T. Streelman, and T.D. Kocher. 2003b. Genetic basis of adaptive shape differences in the cichlid head. Journal of Heredity 94 (4): 291-301. doi:10.1093/jhered/esg071 Abstract download full text
Albertson, R.C., J.T. Streelman, T.D. Kocher, and P.C. Yelick. 2005. Integration and evolution of the cichlid mandible: The molecular basis of alternate feeding strategies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 102 (45): 16287-16292. Abstract Cover photo download full text download full text
Alesandrini, S., and G. Bernardi. 1999. Ancient species flocks and recent speciation events: What can rockfish teach us about cichlids (and vice versa)? Journal of Molecular Evolution 49 (6): 814-818. popup abstract
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Alimoso, S.B. 1986. An assessment of yields in the chambo (Oreochromis sp.) fishery in southern Lake Malawi. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Wales, Bangor, 60 pp.
Alimoso, S.B. 1989. Management of catfish (Bagrus meridionalis Günther) in southern Lake Malawi. Fishbyte 7 (2): 10-12. (ISSN: 0116-0079)
Alimoso, S.B., J.H. Magasa, and N.P. van Zalinge. 1990. Exploitation and management of fish resources in Lake Malawi. Pp. 83-95 in: Fisheries of the African Great Lakes. Research papers presented at the International Symposium on Resource Use and Conservation of the African Great Lakes, hosted by the University of Burundi, Bujumbura, 29 November-2 December 1989. International Agricultural Centre, Wageningen, Netherlands, Fisheries and Aquaculture Unit, Occasional Paper No. 3. [Also seen cited as pp. 251-265 in the same Occasional Paper No. 3]
Alimoso, S., M.B.D. Seisay, and N.P. van Zalinge 1990. An efficient method for catch-effort sampling of the artisanal chambo (Oreochromis spp.) fisheries of the south-east arm of Lake Malawi, the Upper Shire River and Lake Malombe. FAO FI:DI/MLW/86/013 Field Document.
Alin, S.R., A.S. Cohen, R. Bills, M.M. Gashagaza, E. Michel, J.-J. Tiercelin, K. Martens, P. Coveliers, S.K. Mboko, K. West, M. Soreghan, S. Kimbadi, and G. Ntakimazi. 1999. Effects of landscape disturbance on animal communities in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Conservation Biology 13 (5): 1017-1033. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.96476.x Abstract
Allender, C.J., O. Seehausen, M.E. Knight, G.F. Turner, and N. Maclean. 2003. Divergent selection during speciation of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes inferred from parallel radiations in nuptial coloration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100 (24): 14074-14079. Abstract download full text
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Allison, E.H. 1996. Estimating fish production and biomass in the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa: a comparison between acoustic observations and predictions based on biomass size-distribution theory. Pp. 224-242 in: Cowx, I.G. (ed.). Stock assessment in inland fisheries. Fishing News Books, Oxford.
Allison, E.H. 2002. Sustainable management of the African Great Lakes: Science for development? Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 5: 315-328. doi:10.1080/14634980290032009 Abstract
Allison, E.H. 2005. The fisheries sector, livelihoods and poverty reduction in Eastern and Southern Africa. Pp. 256-273 in: Ellis, F., and H.A. Freeman (eds.). Rural livelihoods and poverty reduction policies. Routledge, London.
Allison, E.H., A. Davies, B.P. Ngatunga, and A.B. Thompson. 1994. A method for studying pelagic fish communities in deep lakes using drifting gillnets. Fisheries Research 20 (1): 87-91. doi:10.1016/0165-7836(94)90008-6 popup abstract
Allison, E.H., F. Ellis, P.M. Mvula, and L.F. Mathieu. 2001. Fisheries management and uncertainty: the causes and consequences of variability in inland fisheries in Africa, with special reference to Malawi. In: Weyl, O. (ed.). Proceedings of the National Fisheries Management Symposium, Lilongwe, Malawi, June 5-9th, 2001. Published on CD-ROM, available from: National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP), P.O. Box 27, Monkey Bay, Malawi (email narmapbay@malawi.net).
Allison, E.H., K. Irvine, and A.B. Thompson. 1996. Lake flies and the deep-water demersal fish community of Lake Malawi. Journal of Fish Biology 48 (5): 1006-1010. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb01494.x popup abstract
Allison, E.H., K. Irvine, A.B. Thompson, and B.P. Ngatunga. 1996. Diets and food consumption rates of pelagic fish in Lake Malawi, Africa. Freshwater Biology 35 (3): 489-515. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.1996.tb01764.x popup abstract
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Allison, E.H., P.M. Mvula, and F. Ellis. 2002. Competing agendas in the development and management of fisheries in Lake Malawi. Pages ?-? in: Geheb, K., and M.-T. Sarch (eds.), Broaching the management impasse: Perspectives on fisheries and their management from the inland waters of Africa. Oxford University Press, Nairobi.
Allison, E.H., B.P. Ngatunga, and A.B. Thompson. 1995. Identification of the pelagic fish. Pp. 159-178 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Allison, E., R.G.T. Paley, G. Ntakimazi, V.J. Cowan, and K. West. 2000. Biodiversity assessment and conservation in Lake Tangayika. In: Final technical report to UNDP/GEF project Pollution Control and Other Measures to Protect Biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika (RAF/92/G32), 193 pp. download full text
Allison, E.H., G. Patterson, K. Irvine, A.B. Thompson, and A. Menz. 1995. The pelagic ecosystem. Pp. 351-367 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Allison, E., and J. Seeley. 2004. HIV and AIDS among fisherfolk: A threat to 'responsible fisheries'? Fish and Fisheries 5 (3): 215-234. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2679.2004.00153.x Abstract
Allison, E.H., A.B. Thompson, B.P. Ngatunga, and K. Irvine K. 1995. The diet and food consumption rates of the offshore fish. Pp. 233-278 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Alphen, J.J.M. van, and O. Seehausen. 2001. Sexual selection, reproductive isolation and the genic view of speciation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14: 874-875. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00343.x download full text [Commentary on Wu (2001), including remarks on cichlid speciation]
Alves-Costa, F.A., A.P. Wasko, C. Oliveira, F. Foresti, and C. Martins. 2006. Genomic organization and evolution of the 5S ribosomal DNA in Tilapiini fishes. Genetica 127 (1-3): 243-252. doi:10.1007/s10709-005-4013-8 Abstract [Includes Tilapia rendalli, which occurs in L. Malawi]
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Ambali, A.J.D. 1996. The relationship between domestication and genetic biodiversity of mouthbrooding tilapia species in Malawi: Oreochromis shiranus shiranus (Boulenger) and Oreochromis shiranus chilwae (Trewavas). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 216 pages.
Ambali, A. 2001. Aquaculture genetics research in Malawi. Pages 61-64 in: Gupta, M.V., and B.O. Acosta (editors). Fish genetics research in member countries and institutions of the International Network on Genetics in Aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 64, 179 pages. download full text
Ambali, A.J.D., R.W. Doyle, and D.I. Cook. 1999. Genetic changes in Oreochromis shiranus (Trewavas) associated with the early stages of national aquaculture development in Malawi. Aquaculture Research 30 (8): 579-588. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2109.1999.00364.x Abstract
Ambali, A.J.D., R.W. Doyle, and D.I. Cook. 2000. Development of polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci for characterizing Oreochromis shiranus subspecies in Malawi. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 16 (3): 121-125. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0426.2000.00166.x download full text
Ambali, A., H. Kabwazi, L. Malekano, G. Mwale, D. Chimwaza, J. Ingainga, N. Makimoto, S. Nakayama, M. Yuma, and Y. Kada. 2001. Relationship between local and scientific names of fishes in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. African Study Monographs 22 (3): 123-154. ISSN: 0285-1601. Abstract download full text
Amcoff, M., A. Gonzalez-Voyer, and N. Kolm. 2013. Evolution of egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes: the roles of parental care and sexual selection. Journal of Evolutionary Biology [Epub 24 Sep 2013 ahead of print]. doi:10.1111/jeb.12231 Abstract
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Amin, O.M., and S.S. Hendrix. 1999. Acanthocephala of cichlids (Pisces) in Lake Malawi, Africa, with a description of Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) malawiensis sp. n. (Quadrigyridae) from Labeo cylindricus Peters, 1852 (Cyprinidae). Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington 66 (1): 47-55. [Acanthocephala, or spiny-headed worms, are a "minor phylum" of wormlike invertebrates often living as ectoparasites on fish.] popup abstract
Amin, O.M., C. Van Oosterhout, J. Blais, R.L. Robinson, and J. Cable. 2008. On the ecology and host relationships of Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) from cichlids in Lake Malawi. Comparative Parasitology 75 (2): 278-282. doi:10.1654/4321.1 Abstract
Amorim, M.C.P., M.E. Knight, Y. Stratoudakis, and G.F. Turner. 2004. Differences in sounds made by courting males of three closely related Lake Malawi cichlid species. Journal of Fish Biology 65: 1358-1371. doi:10.1111/j.0022-1112.2004.00535.x Abstract
Amorim, M.C.P., J.M. Simões, P.J. Fonseca, and G.F. Turner. 2008. Species differences in courtship acoustic signals among five Lake Malawi cichlid species (Pseudotropheus spp.). Journal of Fish Biology 72 (6): 1355-1368. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.01802.x Abstract
Ancey, C.F. 1894. Résultats des recherches malacologiques de Mgr. Lechaptois sur les bords du lac Nyassa et de la rivière Shiré. Mémoirs de la Societé Zoologique de France 7: 217-234. [Mollusca]
André, E.R. 2000. Benthic nutrient cycling: The role of fish in nitrogen and phosphorus regeneration in the rocky littoral zone of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa, Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Waterloo, Ontario. popup abstract
André, E.R., H.C. Duthie, and R.E. Hecky. 2002. Energy and nutrient dynamics of rock dwelling cichlids grazing on epilithic periphyton of the littoral zone of Lake Malawi, Africa. IAGLR Conference Program and Abstracts 45 (4). IAGLR 45th Annual Conference, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 2-6 June 2002. International Association for Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
André, E.R., R.E. Hecky, and H.C. Duthie. 2003. Nitrogen and phosphorus regeneration by cichlids in the littoral zone of Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 190-201. Abstract
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Andries, S., and M.H.J. Nelissen. 1988. Interspecific dominance relationships in mbuna-cichlid fish (O. Perciformes). Annales de la Société royale Zoologique de Belgique 118 (1): 91. popup abstract
Andries, S., and M. Nelissen. 1989a. The influence of dominant and subordinate experiences on dominance relations in Melanochromis auratus (Cichlidae). Newsletter of the I.A.F.E. 10 (1): 9-10. [The identity of "I.A.F.E." is unknown to me]
Andries, S., and M. Nelissen. 1989b. Interspecific dominance relationships in mbuna cichlid fish. Pages 29-33 in: Crapon de Caprona, M.-D., and B. Fritzch (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Biology, Ecology and Conservation of Cichlids, Bielefeld, West Germany, 24-27 February 1988. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 257. popup abstract
Andries, S., and M.H.J. Nelissen. 1990. A study of the dominance hierarchy in 4 Mbuna-species - Melanochromis johanni, M. auratus, Pseudotropheus ornatus [sic], and P. lombardoi (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Belgian Journal of Zoology 120 (2): 165-193. [Note: There is still no "Pseudotropheus ornatus"; this appears to be a nomen nudum] popup abstract
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[Anonymous]. 1964. Labeo mesops (nchila). Pages 4-9 and figures 1-4 in: Annual report of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for the year 1963/64. Fisheries research (Part 2). Government Printer, Zomba, Malawi. [Data on breeding biology, growth, behavior, maturity, fecundity, food & feeding, and the riverine fishery for mature fish.]
[Anonymous]. 1992. Post-harvest fisheries losses in the SADC region. Report of a workshop held in Liwonde, Malawi 21-25 Oct. 1991. 85 pp.
[Anonymous]. 1993a. Schistosomiasis in U.S. Peace Corps volunteers--Malawi, 1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 42 (29): 565-570. Abstract download full text
[Anonymous]. 1993b. Artisanal fisheries management plan. Fisheries Department, Lilongwe, Malawi. [Complete citation unknown]
[Anonymous]. 1996. Malawi study signals need for more research on female genital schistosomiasis. TDR News, June: 8.
[Anonymous]. 1998. Interim first national report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Ministry of Forestry, Fisheries & Environmental Affairs, Government of Malawi, Lilongwe. download full text
[Anonymous]. 1999. Fish stocks and fisheries of Malawian waters. Resource report 1999. Fisheries Bulletin 39, 57 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (801 Kb)
[Anonymous]. 2001. Out of Africa. Aquaculturist Ron Barnes uses geothermal water in southern Oregon to rear tropical fish from African Rift Valley lake. GRC Bulletin (March/April): 74-76. Geothermal Resources Council, Davis, California. download full text [An aquaculturist near Klamath Falls, Oregon uses geothermal water to warm his wholsesale Lake Malawi cichlid breeding facility]
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Anseaume, L., and G.G. Teugels. 1999. On the rehabilitation of the clariid catfish genus Bathyclarias endemic to the East African Rift Lake Malawi. Journal of Fish Biology 55: 405-419. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1999.tb00687.x popup abstract
Anseeuw, D. 2008. Population substructuring in the Utaka (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi (East Africa): do genetic and (eco-)morphological differentiation go hand in hand? Ph.D. dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), [xx] + 186 + [iv] pp. ISBN [978-90-8649-200-8]. popup abstract download full text
Anseeuw, D., J. Guelinckx, and J. Snoeks. 2009. Differences in stable isotope composition within and among zooplanktivorous Utaka cichlid populations from Lake Malawi. African Journal of Ecology 48 (2, June 2010): 378-385. (Published online 7 Sep 2009). doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01124.x Abstract
Anseeuw, D., G.E. Maes, P. Busselen, D. Knapen, J. Snoeks, and E. Verheyen. 2008. Subtle population structure and male-biased dispersal in two Copadichromis species (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, East Africa. Hydrobiologia 615 (1): 69-79. doi:10.1007/s10750-008-9565-z Abstract
Anseeuw, D., B. Nevado, P. Busselen, J. Snoeks, and E. Verheyen. 2012. Extensive introgression among ancestral mtDNA lineages: phylogenetic relationships of the utaka within the Lake Malawi cichlid flock. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2012: 865603. 9 pp. doi:10.1155/2012/865603 download full text
Anseeuw, D., J.A. Raeymaekers, P. Busselen, E. Verheyen, and J. Snoeks. 2011. Low genetic and morphometric intraspecific divergence in peripheral Copadichromis populations (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the lake Malawi basin. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2011: 835946, 11 pp. doi:10.4061/2011/835946 Abstract download full text
Aoki, I. 2003. Diversity—productivity—stability relationship in freshwater ecosystems: Whole-systemic view of all trophic levels. Ecological Research 18: 397-404. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1703.2003.00564.x Abstract [High-level theoretical paper making multiple references to data from L. Malawi and other African Great Lakes]
Arnegard, M.E. 2005. Signal divergence and design in sympatric morphs of an electric fish species flock. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 222 pages. [Includes a chapter on Mormyrops anguilloides in Lake Malawi] popup abstract
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Arnegard, M.E. 2009. Ongoing ecological divergence in an emerging genomic model. Molecular Ecology 18: 2926-2929. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04249.x Abstract download full text [In lamprologine cichlids of Lake Tanganyika]
Arnegard, M.E., and B.A. Carlson. 2005. Electric organ discharge patterns during group hunting by a mormyrid fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 272: 1305-1314. [Epub 22 Jun 2005 ahead of print] [Mormyrops anguilloides] doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3101 Abstract download full text
Arnegard, M.E., and A.S. Kondrashov. 2004. Sympatric speciation by sexual selection alone is unlikely. Evolution 58 (2): 222-237. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb01640.x Abstract
Arnegard, M.E., J.A. Markert, P.D. Danley, J.R. Stauffer, Jr., A.J. Ambali, and T.D. Kocher. 1999. Population structure and colour variation of the cichlid fish Labeotropheus fuelleborni Ahl along a recently formed archipelago of rocky habitat patches in southern Lake Malawi. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 266: 119-130. doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0611 popup abstract download full text
Arnegard, M.E., and J. Snoeks. 2001. New three-spotted cichlid species with hypertrophied lips (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the deep waters of Lake Malawi/Nyasa, Africa. Copeia 2001 (3): 705-717. Abstract (English); Chichewa popup abstract (Abstract translated from English by Dalitso Richard Kafumbata) [The formal description and naming of Otopharynx "rubber lips" as O. pachycheilus, and histologic exploration of its thickened lips.]
Aubin-Horth, N., J.K. Desjardins, Y.M. Martei, S. Balshine, and H.A. Hofmann. 2007. Masculinized dominant females in a cooperatively breeding species. Molecular Ecology 16 (7): 1349-1358. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03249.x Abstract [In Neolamprologus pulcher. A "perspective" on this paper is given by Ketterson (2007)]
Aziz, M.A. 1973. The freshwater environments of eastern Africa and the zoogeography, systematics and success of Cichlidae (Pisces: Perciformes). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin at Madison.
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Balarin, J.D. 1987. National reviews for aquaculture development in Africa. 12. Malawi. FAO Fisheries Circular, 770.12: 82 pp.
Baldo, L., M.E. Santos, and W. Salzburger. 2011. Comparative transcriptomics of eastern African cichlid fishes shows signs of positive selection and a large contribution of untranslated regions to genetic diversity. Genome Biology and Evolution 3: 443-455. doi:10.1093/gbe/evr047 Abstract [in Astatotilapia burtoni and Ophthalmotilapia ventralis]
Balirwa, J.S., C.A. Chapman, L.J. Chapman, I.G. Cowx, K. Geheb, L. Kaufman, R.H. Lowe-McConnell, O. Seehausen, J.H. Wanink, R.L. Welcomme, and F. Witte. 2003. Biodiversity and fishery sustainability in the Lake Victoria basin: An unexpected marriage? BioScience 53 (8): 703-716. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0703:BAFSIT]2.0.CO;2 download full text
  Balon, E.K. 1977. Early ontogeny of Labeotropheus Ahl, 1927 (Mbuna, Cichlidae, Lake Malawi), with a discussion on advanced protective styles in fish reproduction and development. Environmental Biology of Fishes 2: 147-176. doi:10.1007/BF00005370 Abstract
Balshine, S., B. Leach, F. Neat, H. Reid, M. Taborsky, and N. Werner. 2001. Correlates of group size in a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish (Neolamprologus pulcher). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 50: 134-140. doi:10.1007/s002650100343 Abstract
Balshine, S., B.J. Leach, F. Neat, N.Y. Werner, and R. Montgomerie. 2001. Sperm size of African cichlids in relation to sperm competition. Behavioral Ecology 12 (6): 726-731. doi:10.1093/beheco/12.6.726 download full text [in L. Tanganyika cichlids]
Banda, M.C. 1992. Age and growth parameters of chambo (Oreochromis spp.) in the southeast arm of of Lake Malawi, as determined from opercular bones. FAO FI/DP/MLW/86/013 Field Doc. 20, 31 pp.
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Banda, M. 2001a. The state of the large scale commercial fishery on Lake Malawi. Pages 163-172 in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (eds.). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001. Government of Malawi.
Banda, M. 2001b. [Title unknown.] Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Zimbabwe. [Cited by Snoeks (2004b); apparently a revision of Bathyclarias]
Banda, M.C., J. Chisambo, R.D. Sipawe, K.R. Mwakiyongo, and O.L.F. Weyl. 2001. Fisheries Research Unit research plan 2000 & 2001. Fisheries Bulletin 44, 54 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (1.17 Mb)
Banda, M.C., and T. Tómasson. 1996. Surveys of trawling grounds and demersal fish stocks in central Lake Malawi from Domira Bay to Nkhata Bay in 1994 and 1995. Fisheries Bulletin 33: 5-6. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department.
Banda, M.C., and T. Tómasson. 1997. Demersal fish stocks in the southern Lake Malawi: Stock assessment and exploitation. Fisheries Bulletin 35: 7-9. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department.
Banda, M., T. Tómasson, and D. Tweddle. 1996. Assessment of the deep water trawl fisheries of the South East Arm of Lake Malawi using exploratory surveys and commercial catch data. Pp. 53-74 [or 75] in Cowx, I.G. (ed.), Stock assessment in inland fisheries. Fishing News Books, Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford.
Bandel, K. 1997. Evolutionary history of East African fresh water gastropods interpreted from the fauna of Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi. Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie, Teil I (1/2): 233-292. ISSN: 0340-5109.
Banister, K.E., and M.A. Clarke. 1980. A revision of the large Barbus (Pisces, Cyprinidae) of Lake Malawi with a reconstruction of the history of the southern African Rift Valley lakes. Journal of Natural History 14: 483-542. doi:10.1080/00222938000770421 To order [See comments under Keilhack (1910).]
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Barel, C.D.N., R. Dorit, P.H. Greenwood, G. Fryer, N. Hughes, P.B.N. Jackson, H. Kawanabe, R.H. Lowe-McConnell, M. Nagoshi, A.J. Ribbink, E. Trewavas, F. Witte, and K. Yamaoka. 1985. Destruction of fisheries in Africa's lakes. Nature 315: 19-20. doi:10.1038/315019a0
Baric, S., W. Salzburger, and C. Sturmbauer. 2003. Phylogeography and evolution of the Tanganyikan cichlid genus Tropheus based upon mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56 (1): 54-68. doi:10.1007/s00239-002-2380-7 Abstract
Barker, P., and F. Gasse. 2003. New evidence for a reduced water balance in East Africa during the Last Glacial Maximum: implication for model-data comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews 22 (8-9): 823-837. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(03)00010-6 Abstract
Barlow, G.W. 2000. The cichlid fishes. Nature's grand experiment in evolution. Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts; xvi + 335 p. Publisher's blurb [Review: Lowe-McConnell (2002)]
Barlow, G.W. 2002. How behavioural studies contribute to the species problem: A piscine perspective. Fish and Fisheries 3 (3): 197-212. doi:10.1046/j.1467-2979.2002.00083.x Abstract
Barraclough, T.G., and S. Nee. 2001. Phylogenetics and speciation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16 (7): 391-399. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02161-9 popup abstract
Barry, S.L. 2001. Stratigraphic correlation and geochronology of varved sediments from Lake Malawi, East Africa. Unpublished thesis, University of Minnesota, Duluth.
Barry, S.L., M.L. Filippi, M. Talbot, and T.C. Johnson. 2002. Sedimentology and geochronology of Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from northern Lake Malawi. Pages 369-393 in: Odada, E.O., and D.O. Olago (editors). The East African Great Lakes: Limnology, Palaeoclimatology and Biodiversity. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Barson, N.J., M.E. Knight, and G.F. Turner. 2007. The genetic architecture of male colour differences between a sympatric Lake Malawi cichlid species pair. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20 (1): 45-53. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2006.01228.x Abstract
Bazigos, G.P. 1974. The improvement of the Malawian fisheries statistical system. FAO/MLW/16. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
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Beadle, L.C. 1962. The evolution of species in the lakes of East Africa. Uganda Journal 26: 44-54 + map. download full text
Beauchamp, R.S.A. 1940. Chemistry and hydrography of Lakes Tanganyika and Nyasa. Nature 146: 253-256.
Beauchamp, R.S.A. 1953. Hydrological data from Lake Nyasa. Journal of Ecology 41: 226-239.
Bell-Cross, G. 1976. The fishes of Rhodesia. National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, Salisbury. [Claims that Tilapia sparrmanii occurs in Lake Malawi, p. 236.]
Bell-Cross, G., and J.L. Minshull. 1988. The fishes of Zimbabwe. National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe, Harare. [Repeats claim that Tilapia sparrmanii occurs in Lake Malawi, p. 271.]
Bernacseck, G.M., A. Massinga, and P. Contreras. 1983. Exploratory gill-netting in Lake Niassa, Mozambique, including biological profiles of the main taxa caught. FAO/GCP/MOZ/006/SWE (Phase II), Field Document 5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Berthold, T. 1990. Phylogenetic relationships, adaptations and biogeographic origin of the Ampullariidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) endemic to Lake Malawi, Africa. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Hamburg 31/32: 85-118. ISSN: 0301-2697.
Bertram, C.K.R., see
Ricardo-Bertram, C.K.
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Bertucci, F., J. Attia, M. Beauchaud, and N. Mathevon. 2012. Sounds produced by the cichlid fish Metriaclima zebra allow reliable estimation of size and provide information on individual identity. Journal of Fish Biology 80 (4): 752–766. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03222.x Abstract [Metriaclima = Maylandia zebra]
Beuning, K.R.M., K.A. Zimmerman, S.J. Ivory, and A.S. Cohen. 2011. Vegetation response to glacial-interglacial climate variability near Lake Malawi in the southern African tropics. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 81–92. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.025 Abstract
Biggs, J., E. Nissen, T. Craig, J. Jackson, and D.P. Robinson. 2010. Breaking up the hanging wall of a rift-border fault: the 2009 Karonga Earthquakes, Malawi. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L11305. doi:10.1029/2010GL043179 Abstract
Bird, N.C., and J.F. Webb. 2014. Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes. EvoDevo 5: 21. doi:10.1186/2041-9139-5-21 Abstract download full text [Studied in Aulonocara stuartgranti and Tramitichromis sp.]
Bishop, M.G. (1987). Clastic depositional processes in response to rift tectonics in the Malawi Rift, Malawi, Africa. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
Blackmore, S., C.O. Dudley, and P.L. Osborne. 1988. An annotated check-list of the aquatic macrophytes of the Shire River, Malawi, with reference to potential aquatic weeds. Kirkia 13 (1): 125-142. [Many of these should also occur in the lakeshore swamps of Lake Malawi]
Blais, J., M. Plenderleith, C. Rico, M.I. Taylor, O. Seehausen, C. van Ooseterhout, and G.F. Turner. 2009. Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 53. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-53 Abstract download full text [Studied in the Pseudotropheus zebra complex: P. emmiltos, P. thapsinogen, and P. zebra]
Blais, J., C. Rico, C. van Oosterhout, J. Cable, G.F. Turner, and L. Bernatchez. 2007. MHC adaptive divergence between closely related and sympatric African cichlids. PLoS ONE. 2007 Aug 15; 2 (1): e734. Abstract download full text [In Pseudotropheus fainzilberi and P. emmiltos]
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Blanc, M. 1962. Catalogue des types de poissons de la famille des Cichlidae en collection au Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle [Paris] (2) 34 (3): 202-227. [Taxa with (syn)type specimens listed for "Lac Nyassa" include: Aulonocara rostrata, Corematodus taeniatus, Cyathochromis obliquidens, Haplochromis cyaneus, H. fenestratus, H. heterodon, H. incola, H. labridens, H. longimanus, H. marginatus marginatus, H. marginatus vuae, H. nitidus, H. oculatus, H. purpuratus, H. serenus, H. tetraspilus, H. triaenodon, Lethrinops furcifer, L. laticeps, L. lituris, L. microstoma, L. variabilis, Melanochromis vermivorus, Petrotilapia tridentiger, Pseudotropheus tropheops gracilior, Tilapia pleurotaenia (with mistaken locality label indicating northern L. Tanganyika), and Trematocranus microstoma.]
Bland, S.J.R., and S. Donda. 1994. Management initiatives for the fisheries of Malawi. Fisheries Bulletin No. 9, 13 pp. Malawi Fisheries Department, Government of Malawi. download full text (637 Kb)
Bland, S.J.R., and S.J. Donda. 1995. Common property and poverty: Fisheries co-management in Malawi. Fisheries Bulletin No. 30, 16 pp. Malawi Fisheries Department, Government of Malawi.
Bogdanowicz, S.M., and D.M. McElroy. 1987. Inheritance of adenosine deaminase in Malawi cichlids. Isozyme Bulletin 20: 10.
Böhne, A., C. Heule, N. Boileau, and W. Salzburger. 2013. Expression and sequence evolution of aromatase cyp19a1 and other sexual development genes in East African cichlid fishes. Molecular Biology and Evolution [Epub 24 Jul 2013 ahead of print]. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst124 Abstract download full text [In Lake Tanganyika cichlids]
Booth, A.J. 2001. Determination of biological reference points for Lake Malawi cichlids. Pp. 248-259 in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (Eds). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001, Capital Hotel, Lilongwe. National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP), Monkey Bay. 272 pp. popup abstract
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Bootsma, H.A. 1993a. Algal dynamics in an African Great Lake, and their relation to hydrographic and meteorological conditions. Unpbulished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Manitoba. popup abstract
Bootsma, H.A. 1993b. Spatio-temporal variation of phytoplankton biomass in Lake Malawi, Central Africa. Verhandlungen der Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie (Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology) 25: 882-886.
Bootsma, H.A., M.J. Bootsma, and R.E. Hecky. 1996. The chemical composition of precipitation and its significance to the nutrient budget of Lake Malawi/ Nyasa/Niassa. Pages 251-266 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds.), The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East Africa Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Toronto.
Bootsma, H.A., and R.E. Hecky. 1993. Conservation of the African Great Lakes - A limnological perspective. Conservation Biology 7 (3): 644-656. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.07030644.x popup abstract
Bootsma, H.A., and R.A. Hecky (eds.). 1999. Water quality report. Lake Malawi Biodiversity Conservation Project. Southern African Development Community (SADC), Global Environmental Facility (GEF). download full text
Bootsma, H.A., and R.E. Hecky. 2001. Initial measurements of benthic photosynthesis in Lake Malawi. Pages ?-? in: Munawar, M., and R.E. Hecky (eds.). The great lakes of the world (GLOW): Food-web, Health & Integrity. Ecovision World Monograph Series, Ottawa. ISBN 9057-820811.
Bootsma, H.A., and R.E. Hecky. 2003. A comparative introduction to the biology and limnology of the African Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 3-18. Abstract
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Bootsma, H.A., R.E. Hecky, R.H. Hesslein, and G.F. Turner. 1996. Food partitioning among Lake Malawi nearshore fishes as revealed by stable isotope analyses. Ecology 77 (4): 1286-1290. doi:10.2307/2265598 popup abstract
Bootsma, H.A., R.E. Hecky, T.C. Johnson, H.J. Kling, and J. Mwita. 2003. Inputs, outputs, and internal cycling of silica in a large, tropical lake. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 121-138. Abstract
Bootsma, H., R.E. Hecky, R.E., J. Mwita, and B. Mwichande. (In press). A silica budget for Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Proceedings of the 2nd IDEAL Conference, Malawi, January 2000. [See preceding publication]
Bootsma, H., and S.E. Jorgensen. [2004.] Lake basin management initiative: Lake Malawi/Nyasa brief. [Unpublished "Third DRAFT Not for Citation or Distribution" (but posted on the Web at WorldLakes.org)] download full text
Bootsma, H., and S.E. Jorgensen. [2005.] Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Experience and lessons learned brief. Pp. 259-276 in companion CD-ROM for: ILEC (2005). Managing lakes and their basins for sustainable use: A report for lake basin managers and stakeholders. International Lake Environment Committee Foundation, Kusatsu, Japan. download full text
Bootsma, H.A., B. Mwichande, J. Mwita, R.E. Hecky, M. Kingdon, and L. Hendzel. 1999. Nutrient flux in Lake Malawi/Nyasa: Is there cause for concern? Pp. 89-91 in: Ribbink, A.J., and A.C. Ribbink (eds), SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Biodiversity Conservation Project, Extended Abstracts: I. Senga Bay Conference, II. Ncheni Project Workshop, SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project, Senga Bay, Malawi.
Bootsma, H.A., J. Mwita, B. Mwichande, R.E. Hecky, J. Kihedu, and J. Mwambungu. 1999. The atmospheric deposition of nutrients on Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Pp. 85-111 in: Bootsma, H.A., and R.E. Hecky (eds.). Water quality report, Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project. SADC/GEF. download full text
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Bork, D., and H.J. Mayland. 2000. Maylandia livingstonii. Ein Cichlide aus dem Malawisee, dessen Nachwuchs in Schneckenhausern aufwachst. [Maylandia livingstonii. A cichlid from Lake Malawi, the progeny of which grows in snail shells.] Aquarium (Bornheim) 368, February: 8-12. [Not seen]
Borodin, N.A. 1936. On a collection of freshwater fishes from lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika and Viktoria in Central Afrika. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere 68 (1): 1-34. [See Trewavas, 1946]
Boulenger, G.A. 1897a. Descriptions of new fishes from the upper Shiré River, British Central Africa, collected by Dr. Percy Rendall, and presented to the British Museum by Sir Harry H. Johnston, K.C.B. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896 (part 4): 915-920 & Plate 47. [Corematodus, Docimodus, Oreochromis shiranus, Tilapia rendalli] download full text
Boulenger, G.A. 1897b. Description of a new fish from Lake Nyassa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 19: 155. [Chromis auratus (=Melanochromis auratus)] download full text
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Boulenger, G.A. 1898. A revision of the African and Syrian fishes of the family Cichlidae.--Part I. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 132-152 & Pl. XIX. download full text [Includes a number of L. Malawi species, but no new taxa from the lake are described herein]
Boulenger, G.A. 1899a. A revision of the African and Syrian fishes of the family Cichlidae.--Part II. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 98-143 & Pls. XI, XII. download full text [Fossorochromis rostratus, Pseudotropheus livingstonii, P. zebra]
Boulenger, G.A. 1899b. A revision of the genera and species of fishes of the family Mormyridae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1898: 775-821. download full text [Includes original description of the widely distributed species Gnathonemus livingstonii, which is, according to Tweddle & Willoughby (1982), the senior synonym of G. nyasensis Worthington, described as a Lake Malawi endemic]
Boulenger, G.A. 1901. Diagnoses of new fishes discovered by Mr. J.E.S. Moore in lakes Tanganyika and Kivu. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 7: 1-6. [Gephyrochromis moorii, Tilapia trematocephala (=Aulonocara trematocephala)] download full text
Boulenger, G.A. 1902. Diagnoses of new cichlid fishes discovered by Mr. J.E.S. Moore in Lake Nyassa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 10: 69-71. [Cyrtocara, C. moorii, Hemitilapia, H. oxyrhynchus, Paratilapia nototaenia (Buccochromis nototaenia), Petrochromis nyassae (synonym of P. polyodon, L. Tanganyika, locality mistaken as L. Nyassa)] download full text download full text
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Boulenger, G.A. 1904. Barbus eutaenia and B. holotaenia, new names for Barbus kessleri, Günther nec Steindachner. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 14: 218. download full text
Boulenger, G.A. 1905. A list of the freshwater fishes of Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 16: 36-60. [Lists a number of species from "L. Nyassa."] download full text
Boulenger, G.A. 1907. Descriptions of three new fishes from Central Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 20: 487-489. download full text [Barbus johnstonii]
Boulenger, G.A. 1908. Diagnoses of new fishes discovered by Capt. E.L. Rhoades in Lake Nyassa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 2: 238-243. download full text download full text [Barbus rhoadesii (=B. litamba), Paratilapia chrysonota (Copadichromis chrysonotus), P. rhoadesii (Buccochromis rhoadesii), P. compressiceps (Dimidiochromis compressiceps), P. caerulea (Champsochromis caeruleus), P. esox (Rhamphochromis esox), Haplochromis venustus (Nimbochromis venustus), Tilapia auromarginata (Otopharynx auromarginatus), T. inornata (Copadichromis inornatus), T. macrophthalma (Lethrinops macrophthalmus), T. brevis (Tramitichromis brevis), Chilotilapia, C. rhoadesii]
Boulenger, G.A. 1911. Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). London. Volume 2: xii + 529 pp. [Chiloglanis neumanni, p. 481] download full text
Boulenger, G.A. 1911b. On a collection of fishes from the Lake Ngami Basin, Bechuanaland. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London: 399-431. [Pollimyrus castelnaui]
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Boulenger, G.A. 1915. Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). London. Volume 3: xii + 526 pp. [Champsochromis, p. 433] download full text
Boulenger, G.A. 1916. Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). London. Volume 4: xxvii + 392 pp. [Barbus toppini, p. 274] download full text
Bourguignat, J.R. 1889. Mélanidées du lac Nyassa suivies d'un aperçu comparatif sur la faune malacologique de ce Lac avec celle du grand lac Tanganika. Bulletin de la Société Malacologique de France 6: 1-66. [Mollusca] download full text
Bouton, N. 2000. Progressive invasion and allopatric speciation can also explain distribution patterns of rock-dwelling cichlids from southern Lake Victoria: A comment on Seehausen and van Alphen (1999). Ecology Letters 3 (3): 166-171. Abstract download full text
Bouton, N., N. van Os, and F. Witte. 1998. Feeding performance of Lake Victoria rock cichlids: testing predictions from morphology. Journal of Fish Biology 53: 118-127. popup abstract
Bouton, N., J. de Visser, and C.D.N. Barel. 2002. Correlating head shape with ecological variables in rock-dwelling haplochromines (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Victoria. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 76 (1): 39-48. Abstract
Bouton, N., F. Witte, and J.J.M. Van Alphen. 2002. Experimental evidence for adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a rock-dwelling cichlid fish from Lake Victoria. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 77 (2): 185-192. [The cichlid is Neochromis greenwoodi] Abstract
Bowers, N.J. 1993. A revision of the genus Melanochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa, using morphological and molecular techniques. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. popup abstract
Bowers, N.J., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1993. New species of rock-dwelling cichlid (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa, with comments on Melanochromis vermivorus Trewavas. Copeia 1993 (3): 715-722. popup abstract [M. heterochromis. Questionably distinct from M. vermivorus; see Perrier & Konings (1998)]
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Bowers, N.J., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1997. Eight new species of rock-dwelling cichlids of the genus Melanochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 8(1): 49-70. popup abstract [M. dialeptos, M. cyaneorhabdos, M. elastodema, M. perileucos, M. baliodigma, M. xanthodigma, M. benetos, and M. lepidiadaptes]
Bowers, N.J., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and T.D. Kocher. 1994. Intra- and interspecific mitochondrial DNA sequence variation within two species of rock-dwelling cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 3 (1): 75-82. Abstract download full text Erratum, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 3 (4): 393.
Bowmaker, J.K. 2008. Evolution of vertebrate visual pigments. Vision Research 48 (20): 2022-2041. Abstract
Bowman, I. 1933. Correlation of sedimentary and climatic records. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 19 (3): 376-388. download full text
Branchu, P., L. Bergonzini, E. Pons-Branchu, E. Violier, M. Dittrich, M. Massault, and B. Ghaleb. 2010. Lake Malawi sediment and pore water chemistry: Proposition of a conceptual model for stratification intensification since the end of the Little Ice Age. Global and Planetary Change (published online ahead of publication). doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.01.008 Abstract
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Brandstätter, A., W. Salzburger, and C. Sturmbauer. 2005. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Cyprichromini, a lineage of open-water cichlid fishes endemic to Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 2005 (Feb); 34 (2): 382-391. Epub 2004 Dec 15. Abstract
Brawand, D., C.E. Wagner, Y.I Li, M. Malinsky, I. Keller, et al. 2014. The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish. Nature [epub 3 Sep 2014 ahead of print]. doi:10.1038/nature13726 Abstract download full text [Major publication focusing on five species: Oreochromis niloticus, Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher, Metriaclima [=Maylandia] zebra, Pundamilia nyererei, and Astatotilapia burtoni. Also looked at 6 other Lake Victoria species. Many novel findings and ideas on how cichlids diversify]
Bray, R.A., and S.S. Hendrix. 2007. A new genus and species of Macroderoididae, and other digeneans from fishes of Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Parasitology 93 (4): 860-865. Abstract [Malawitrema staufferi. Includes listing of all known digenean platyhelminths from Lake Malawi]
Bray, R.A., C. van Oosterhout, J. Blais, and J. Cable. 2006. Astiotrema turneri sp. n. (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) from cichlid fishes (Cichlidae: Perciformes) of Lake Malawi. Zootaxa 1319: 43-58. Abstract
Breidbach, O., and J. Jost. 2004. Working in a multitude of trends — species balancing populations. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42 (3): 202-207. Abstract
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Brien, P. 1972. Malawispongia echinoides (n.g., n.sp.) eponge céractinellide haploscléride africaine du lac Malawi (formation de la spongine périspiculaire). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 86 (1-2): 65-92. [This endemic Lake Malawi sponge genus was later made the type of a new family by Manconi & Pronzato (2002)]
Brien, P. 1973. Malawispongia echinoides Brien. Etudes complémentaires, histologie, sexualité, embryologie, affinités systématiques. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 87 (1): 50-76.
Brooks, J.L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes. Quarterly Review of Biology 25 (2): 30-60, 131-176. First page of first part First page of concluding part
Brown, D.S. 1978. Freshwater molluscs. Pp. 1153-1180 in: Werger, M.J.A., and A.C. Van Bruggen (eds.). Biogeography and ecology of southern Africa (2). ISBN: 9061930839. Junk, The Hague. [Reportedly includes information on the Lake Malawi malacofauna.]
Brown, D.S. 1994. Freshwater snails of Africa and their medical importance. 2nd edition. Taylor & Francis, London.
Brown, D.S. 1996. Lanistes nasutus. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 31 August 2007. download full text
Brown, D.S., S. Hughes, A. Kaukas, N. Kumwenda, D. Rollinson, and J.J. Sullivan. 1996. Further record of Bulinus truncatus (Mollusca: Planorbidae) for Malawi, with evidence of compatibility with Schistosoma haematobium. Journal of African Zoology 110: 333-339.
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Brown, E.T. 2010. Lake Malawi's response to "megadrought" terminations: Sedimentary records of flooding, weathering and erosion. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology (published online 4 Feb 2010 ahead of publication). Abstract doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.038
Brown, K.J., L. Ruber, R. Bills, and J.J. Day. 2010. Mastacembelid eels support Lake Tanganyika as an evolutionary hotspot of diversification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 188. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-188 Abstract download full text [Phylogeny includes Mastacembelus (Aethiomastacembelus) shiranus of Lake Malawi]
Brummett, R.E. 1996. Production of Tilapia rendalli in weedy ponds receiving no external inputs. Malawi Journal of Science and Technology 3: 37-48. Abstract
Brummett, R.E., and F.J.K. Chikafumbwa. 1999. An incremental, farmer- participatory approach to the development of aquaculture technology in Malawi. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter (23): 26-31.
Bruwer, E.E. 2003. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies of the southern African catfish genus Synodontis Cuvier, 1816 (Teleostei, Mochokidae). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University, Auckland Park, South Africa (now part of University of Johannesburg). popup abstract download full text [Allozyme data and cladistic analysis include Synodontis njassae]
Brzozowski, F., J. Roscoe, K. Parsons, and C. Albertson. Sexually dimorphic levels of color trait integration and the resolution of sexual conflict in lake Malawi cichlids. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 318 (4): 268-78. doi:10.1002/jez.b.22443 Abstract
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Buat, P., P.S. Ramlal, and S.J. Guildford. 2002. The relationship between organic matter, invertebrates and bacteria in the sediments of Lake Malawi. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 5: 307-313. Abstract
Bulirani, A.E. 2003. The challenges of developing an integrated approach to the management of Lake Malawi/Niassa and its catchment resources. Annex C in: Wright, A., and J. Chafota (eds.). Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa Ecoregion, report on the donors and partners meeting. WWF Ecoregion Conservation Programme.
Bulirani, A.E., M.C. Banda, O.K. Pålsson, O.L.F. Weyl, G.Z. Kanyerere, M.M. Manase, and R.D. Sipawe. 1999. Fish stocks and fisheries of Malawian waters. Resource report. Government of Malawi Fisheries Department, Fisheries Resource Unit, Lilongwe. 54 pp. [Citation to be verified; also seen cited with authorship of Banda and Pålsson reversed]
Burchell, W.J. 1822. Travels in the interior of southern Africa. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown, London; volume 1 of 2 volumes. [Clarias gariepinus]
Burgess, W.E. 1975. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 2. New developments in the Malawi genus Labidochromis. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 24 (4): 44-48. [An attempt to unravel confusion in this genus. See Lewis (1980, 1982) for contributions that greatly improved the situation] download full text (Searchable 578 kb file)
Burgess, W.E. 1976a. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 3. A new Melanochromis from Lake Malawi, with comments on the genus. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 24 (6), February 1976: 61-65. [M. exasperatus]
Burgess, W.E. 1976b. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 5. Pseudotropheus aurora, a new species of cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 24 (9): 52-56. [Not seen]
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Burgess, W.E. 1976c. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 6. A new shell-dwelling cichlid from Lake Malawi and its inquiline catfish. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 25 (1): 39-48. [Pseudotropheus lanisticola; also discussion and photos of its inquiline catfish Zaireichthys sp.] download full text [Searchable 1 Mb file]
Burgess, W.E. 1976d. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 7. Cynotilapia axelrodi, a new species of mbuna from Lake Malawi (Pisces: Cichlidae). Tropical Fish Hobbyist 25 (2): 37-44.
Burgess, W.E. 1977. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 8. Pseudotropheus lombardoi, a new species of Lake Malawi Mbuna with reversed sexual coloration (Pisces: Cichlidae). Tropical Fish Hobbyist 26 (2): 63-67. [Not seen]
Burgess, W.E. 1979. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 9. Haplochromis electra a new species of cichlid from the waters around Likoma Island, Lake Malawi. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 27 (8), April: 91-94. download full text (Searchable 660 kb file)
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Burgess, W.E., and H.R. Axelrod. 1973. New cichlids from Lake Malawi. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 22 (2), October: 14, 87-93, 95-98. [Trematocranus peterdaviesi, Diplotaxodon ecclesi, Lethrinops polli, L. gossei, Haplochromis hennydaviesae, H. stonemani, & H. anaphyrmus] download full text (Searchable 1.7 Mb file)
Burgess, W.E., and H.R. Axelrod. [1974]. Haplochromis linni, a new species of cichlid from Lake Malawi. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 23 (5), January 1975: 36-41. [Although this issue is dated January 1975, I received a regular subscription copy by mail on 7 December 1974 — M. K. Oliver] download full text
Burgess, W.E., and H.R. Axelrod. 1975. Pseudotropheus tursiops, a new species of cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 24 (3): 86-90. download full text (Searchable 408 kb file)
Burgess, W.E., and H.R. Axelrod 1976. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 4. Two new species of mbuna (rock-dwelling cichlids) from Lake Malawi. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 24 (7), March: 44-49, 52. [Melanochromis parallelus, Labidochromis mathotho] download full text (Searchable 732 kb file)
Burrough, S.L., and D.S.G. Thomas. 2009. Geomorphological contributions to palaeolimnology on the African continent. Geomorphology 103 (3): 285-298. [Available online 3 August 2008] Abstract
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  Calder, I.R., R.L. Hall, H.G. Bastable, H.M. Gunston, O. Shela, A. Chirwa, and R. Kafundu. 1995. The impact of land use change on water resources in sub-Saharan Africa: a modeling study of Lake Malawi. Journal of Hydrology 170: 123-135. Abstract
Carleton, K.L., F.I. Hárosi, and T.D. Kocher. 2000. Visual pigments of African cichlid fishes: evidence for ultraviolet vision from microspectrophotometry and DNA sequences. Vision Research 40 (8): 879-890. Abstract download full text [Studied in Metriaclima (=Maylandia) zebra]
Carleton, K.L., C.M. Hofmann, C. Klisz, Z. Patel, L.M. Chircus, L.H. Simenauer, N. Soodoo, R.C. Albertson, and J.R. Ser. 2010. Genetic basis of differential opsin gene expression in cichlid fishes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23 (4): 840–853. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.01954.x Abstract
Carleton, K.L., and T.D. Kocher. 2001. Cone opsin genes of African cichlid fishes: Tuning spectral sensitivity by differential gene expression. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 (8): 1540-50. Abstract download full text
Carleton, K.L., and T.D. Kocher. 2003. Evolutionary genetics: Rose-colored goggles. Heredity 90: 116-117. Abstract download full text [Color vision and speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids]
Carleton, K.L., J.W. Parry, J.K. Bowmaker, D.M. Hunt, and O. Seehausen. 2005. Colour vision and speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids of the genus Pundamilia. Molecular Ecology 14 (14): 4341-4353. Abstract download full text
Carleton, K.L., T.C. Spady, and T.D. Kocher. 2002. The genetics of cichlid visual sensitivities: Using DNA to see through the eyes of a fish. IAGLR Conference Program and Abstracts 45 (19-20). IAGLR 45th Annual Conference, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 2-6 June 2002. International Association for Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Carleton, K.L., T.C. Spady, and T.D. Kocher. 2006. Visual communication in East African cichlid fishes: Diversity in a phylogenetic context. Pp. 485-515 in: Ladich, F., S.P. Collin, P. Moller, and B.G. Kapoor, eds. Communication in Fishes. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield NH. Publisher's blurb
Carleton, K.L., T.C. Spady, J.T. Streelman, M.R. Kidd, W.N. McFarland, and E.R. Loew. 2008. Visual sensitivities tuned by heterochronic shifts in opsin gene expression. BMC Biology 6 (22). Abstract download full text
Carter, G.S., H.W. Haslam, and S.H. Smith. 1973. Regional geochemical reconnaissance of Malawi. Malawi Government Printer, Zomba.
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Castañeda, I.S., J.P. Werne, and T.C. Johnson. 2009. Influence of climate change on algal community structure and primary productivity of Lake Malawi (East Africa) from the Last Glacial Maximum to present. Limnology and Oceanography 54 (6, part 2): 2431-2447. download full text
Castañeda, I.S., J.P. Werne, T.C. Johnson, and L.A. Powers. 2010. Organic geochemical records from Lake Malawi (East Africa) of the last 700 years, part II: Biomarker evidence for recent changes in primary productivity. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology [Epub 13 Jan 2010 ahead of print]. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.006 Abstract
Castañeda, I.S., J.P. Werne, T.C. Johnson, and T.R. Filley. 2009. Late Quaternary vegetation history of southeast Africa: The molecular isotopic record from Lake Malawi. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 275: 100-112. Abstract
Castillo Cajas, R.F., O.M. Selz, E.A.P. Ripmeester, O. Seehausen, and M.E. Maan. 2012. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2012: 161306, 12 pp. doi:10.1155/2012/161306 Abstract download full text [In Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei]
Castelnau, F.M. 1861. Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe. Paris; vii + 78 pp. [Clarias ngamensis]
Cetron, M.S., L. Chitsulo, J.J. Sullivan, J. Pilcher, M. Wilson, J. Noh, V.C. Tsang, A.W. Hightower, and D.G. Addiss. 1996. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi. Lancet 348 (9037): 1274-1278. Abstract
Chakrabarty, P. 2004. Cichlid biogeography: comment and review. Fish and Fisheries 5: 97-119. Abstract
Chakrabarty, P. 2005. Testing conjectures about morphological diversity in cichlids of Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Copeia 2005 (2): 359-373. Abstract download full text
Changadeya, W., A.J.D. Ambali, H.H. Kabwazi, D.R. Kafumbata, M.C. Chimenya, and M.C. Phiri. 2001. The status of lagoon fishery in Nkhota-Kota District, Malawi. Malawi Journal of Science and Technology 6: 3-9. Abstract
Changadeya, W., A.J.D. Ambali, and L.B. Malekano. [2003]. Genetic variation of Taeniolethrinops praeorbitalis (Chisawasawa) in the central and southern Lake Malawi. UNISWA Journal of Agriculture 10 (2001): 30-39(?). Faculty of Agriculture, Mbabane, Swaziland. ISSN 1021-0873. Abstract
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Chapman, L.J., C.A. Chapman, F.G. Nordlie, and A.E. Rosenberger. 2002. Physiological refugia: Swamps, hypoxia tolerance and maintenance of fish diversity in the Lake Victoria region. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (Part A) 133: 421-437. download full text
Chavula, G., P. Brezonik, P. Thenkabail, T. Johnson, and M. Bauer. 2009a. Estimating the surface temperature of Lake Malawi using AVHRR and MODIS satellite imagery. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 34 (13-16): 749-754. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2009.08.001 Abstract
Chavula, G., P. Brezonik, P. Thenkabail, T. Johnson, and M. Bauer. 2009b. Estimating chlorophyll concentration in Lake Malawi from MODIS satellite imagery. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 34 (13-16): 755-760. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2009.07.015 Abstract
Chikondi, G.M., V. Joshua, and S.J.K.S. Phiri. 2010. Modeling the fluxes of nitrogen, phosphate and sediments in Linthipe catchment, Southern Lake Malawi Basin: Implications for catchment management. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5 (6): 424-430. Abstract download full text
Chimatiro, S., and B.A. Costa-Pierce. 1996. Waste vegetable leaves as feeds for juvenile Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis shiranus in mono- and polyculture. Pages 183-192 in: R.S.V. Pullin et al. (eds.). Third International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 41. ix + 575 pp.
Chinsembu, K.C. 2009. Mechanisms and molecular genetic bases of rapid speciation in African cichlids. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews 3 (4): 81-91. download full text
Chiotha, S.S., and K.R. McKaye. 1986. Possible biological control of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) by Lake Malawi molluscivores. Luso: Journal of Science and Technology (Malawi) 7 (1): 11-24. [Precise journal title uncertain]
Chiotha, S.S., K.R. McKaye, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1991. Prey handling in Trematocranus placodon, a snail-eating cichlid fish from Malawi. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 2 (3): 203-208. popup abstract
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Chiotha, S.S., and R.P. Morgan. 1987. Molluscicides used to control schistosomiasis. Luso: Journal of Science and Technology (Malawi) 8 (1&2): 11-22. [Precise journal title uncertain]
Chiotha, S.S., and J.D. Msonthi. 1986. Screening of indigenous plants for possible use in controlling bilharzia transmitting snails in Malawi. Fitoterapia 62 (3): 193-197.
Chisala, C. 1969. Fish culture in Malawi. Pp. 35-38 in: Problems of natural resources in Malawi. IBP Conference, University of Malawi, 25-26 July 1969.
Chisambo, J., O.L.F. Weyl, and W. Namoto. 2001. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Domira Bay, Lake Malawi, 1976-1999. Fisheries Bulletin 47, 21 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (468 Kb)
Chiumia, M. 1975. Fish preservation in Malawi. FAO/SIDA Seminar on the planning and implementation of fish utilization programmes in Africa, Lusaka, Zambia, 5-23 May 1975. FAO, Rome, FII:TFUA/75/C2: 4 pp.
Ciccotto, P.J., A. Konings, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2011. Descriptions of five new species in the genus Metriaclima (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Zootaxa 2738: 1-25. Abstract [The new species are Metriaclima (=Maylandia) glaucos, M. mossambicus, M. nkhunguensis, M. xanthos, & M. sciasma]
Clabaut, C. 2005. Morphometric, molecular phylogenetic and gene expression approaches towards the understanding of the adaptive radiations of the East African cichlids. Unpublished Dr. Rer. Nat. dissertation, University of Konstanz, 122 pp. download full text
Clabaut, C., P.M. Bunje, W. Salzburger, and A. Meyer. 2007. Geometric morphometric analyses provide evidence for the adaptive character of the Tanganyikan cichlid fish radiations. Evolution 61 (3): 560-578. Abstract
Clabaut, C., W. Salzburger, and A. Meyer. 2005. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish: Nuclear sequences are less homoplasious but also less informative than mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Molecular Evolution 61 (5): 666-681. Abstract download full text
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Clarke, J.E. 1983. Protected areas masterplan for the Southern Region. Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Lilongwe, Malawi. [Includes Lake Malawi National Park]
Cleaver, R.M., A.F. Konings, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2009. Two new cave-dwelling cichlids of Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 20 (2): 163-178. [Otopharynx antron and O. spelaeotes described as new; O. walteri synonymized with O. lithobates] Abstract & first page
Clement, R. 2006. Visualizing speciation in artificial cichlid fish. Artificial Life (Spring) 12 (2): 243-257. Abstract
Cocquyt, C., and W. Vyverman. 1994. Composition and diversity of the algal flora in the East African Great Lakes: A comparative survey of lakes Tanganyika, Malawi (Nyasa), and Victoria. Pp. 161-172 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
Cocquyt, C., W. Vyverman, and P. Compère. 1993. A check-list of the algal flora of the East African Great Lakes (Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria). Scripta Botanica Belgica 8: 1-55.
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Cohen, A.S. 1994a. Extinction in ancient lakes: Biodiversity crises and conservation 40 years after J.L. Brooks. Pp. 451-479 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
Cohen, A.S. 1994b. Conservation of ancient lake species. Pp. 499-500 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
Cohen, A.S. 2000. Linking spatial and temporal change in the diversity structure of ancient lakes: Examples from the ecology and palaeoecology of the Tanganyikan ostracods. Pp. 521-537 in: Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe, eds. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, volume 31. Academic Press, London. popup abstract
Cohen, A.S. 2003. Paleolimnology. The history and evolution of lake systems. Oxford University Press, London and New York. 528 pp. ISBN 0195133536. Publisher's blurb & ordering information [Includes multiple references to Lake Malawi.]
Cohen, A.S., L. Kaufman, and R. Ogutu-Ohwayo. 1996. Anthropogenic threats, impacts and conservation strategies in the African Great Lakes: A review. Pages 575-624 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Cohen, A., K. Martens, P. Reinthal, D. Dettman, J. Stone, K. Beuning, C. Scholz, T. Johnson, and J. King. 2006. Preliminary paleoecological results from the Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, 22-25 October 2006, Philadelphia. Session No. 28, Core analysis of lake sediments (posters). Abstracts with programs, Vol. 38, No. 7, p. 84. download full text
Cohen, A.S., and P. Reinthal. 1998. Biodiversity: The Great Lakes of Africa. Instructional CD-ROM, W. Blundell, producer. University of Arizona, Tucson.
Cohen, A.S., J.R. Stone, K.R.M. Beuning, L.E. Park, P.N. Reinthal, D. Dettman, C.A. Scholz, T.C. Johnson, J.W. King, M.R. Talbot, E.T. Brown, and S.J. Ivory. 2007. Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 16416–16421. Abstract download full text ["The megadrought low-stand demonstrated here for Lake Malawi provides a much more robust constraint on genetic divergence within the cichlid phylogeny, implying rates of evolution four to eight times slower than those that assume a major role for the LGM [Last Glacial Maximum] in Lake Malawi speciation. Conversely, the most recent megadrought is much younger than nuclear ... or mitochondrial ... molecular clock estimates of mbuna and non-mbuna cichlid divergence (0.7 ma and 0.57–1.0 ma, respectively)." See also Scholz, Johnson, Cohen et al. (2007)]
Cohen, J.E. 1977. Food webs and the dimensionality of trophic niche space. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 74: 4533-4536. Abstract download full text [Includes analysis of the food webs in Fryer (1959a)]
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Coleman, R.M. (editor). 2001. Cichlid research: State of the art. Journal of Aquariculture & Aquatic Sciences, Volume 9, 391 pages. [Contents and purchasing information are available online.]
Colombe, J. 1979. Pseudotropheus tropheops romandi, sous-espèce nouvelle du lac Malawi (Pisces, Teleostei, Cichlidae). Revue Française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie 6 (2): 33-38. [Not seen]
Colombo, M., E.T. Diepeveen, M. Muschick, M. Emilia Santos, A. Indermaur, N. Boileau, M. Barluenga, and W. Salzburger. 2013. The ecological and genetic basis of convergent thick-lipped phenotypes in cichlid fishes. Molecular Ecology 22 (3): 670-684. doi:10.1111/mec.12029 Abstract
Condé, B., and J. Géry. 1999. Maylandia Meyer et Foerster, 1984, un nom générique disponible (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae). [Maylandia Meyer and Foerster, 1984, an available generic name.] Revue Française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie 26 (1-2): 21-22. [The authors conclude that Maylandia is a valid generic name, with priority over Metriaclima Stauffer, Bowers, Kellogg, & McKaye (1997). Eschmeyer's authoritative Catalog of Fishes accepts the conclusion that Maylandia is the valid name.]
Conservation International (content partner) and M. McGinley (topic editor). 2009. Biological diversity in the Eastern Afromontane. In: Encyclopedia of Earth. C.J. Cleveland, ed. [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth 13 Oct 2008; last revised 1 Jul 2009; retrieved 5 Dec 2013.] download full text [Includes brief treatment of rift lake fish diversity]
Cooke, G.S., A. Lalvani, F.V. Gleeson, and C.P. Conlon. 1999. Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis in travelers returning from Lake Malawi, sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical Infectious Disease 29 (4): 836-839. Abstract download full text
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Cooley, P.M. 2004. The coastal habitats, species composition, richness, and temporal variation of haplochromine cichlids in an African Great Lake: Implications for biodiversity conservation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. popup abstract
Cooley, P.M., and D.G. Barber. 2003. Remote sensing of the coastal zone of tropical lakes using synthetic aperture radar and optical data. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 62-75. Abstract
Cooley, P.M., J. Snoeks, A.J. Ribbink, F. Duponchelle, M. Hanssens, R. Sululu, and P. Hamblin. 2003. A biodiversity atlas for Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: version 3.0. World Bank Report. Executive summary (updated Feb 2004) Information: Paul Cooley
Cooper, W.J., K. Parsons, A. McIntyre, B. Kern, A. McGee-Moore, and R.C. Albertson. 2010. Bentho-pelagic divergence of cichlid feeding architecture was prodigious and consistent during multiple adaptive radiations within African rift-lakes. PLoS One. 08-Mar-2010; 5 (3): e9551. Abstract download full text
Cooper, W.J., J. Wernle, K. Mann, and R.C. Albertson. 2011. Functional and genetic integration in the skulls of Lake Malawi cichlids. Evolutionary Biology 38 (3): 316–334. doi:10.1007/s11692-011-9124-9 Abstract
Costa-Pierce, B.A. 1996. Effects of substrate and water quality on seasonal fry production by Tilapia rendalli in tanks. Pages 280-289 in: R.S.V. Pullin et al. (eds.). Third International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 41. ix + 575 pp.
Costa-Pierce, B.A., C. Lightfoot, K. Ruddle, and R.S.V. Pullin (eds.). 1991. Aquaculture research and development in rural Africa: summary report. ICLARM Conference Proceedings (27), 52 pp. ISBN 971-1022-90-7. ["A summary report on the ICLARM-GTZ/Malawi Fisheries Department/University of Malawi International Conference in Zomba, Malawi, on 2-6 April 1990. Contains abstracts of the papers, which attempt to identify the reasons why the progress of aquaculture in Africa has been slow. With Malawi as a case study, fresh approaches to aquaculture development are presented."] download full text
Couldridge, V.C.K. 2002. Experimental manipulation of male eggspots demonstrates female preference for one large spot in Pseudotropheus lombardoi. Journal of Fish Biology (March) 60 (3): 726-730. popup abstract
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Couldridge, V.C.K., and G.J. Alexander. 2001. Does the time spent near a male predict female mate choice in a Malawian cichlid? Journal of Fish Biology 59 (3): 667-672. popup abstract
Couldridge, V.C.K., and G.J. Alexander. 2002. Color patterns and species recognition in four closely related species of Lake Malawi cichlid. Behavioral Ecology 13 (1): 59-64. [Pseudotropheus (Maylandia) zebra complex.] popup abstract
Coulter, G.W. (ed.). 1991a. Lake Tanganyika and its life. viii + 354 pages. Oxford University Press, Oxford, London, and New York. ISBN 0-19-858525-X. [Cichlids and other shore fishes are nearly excluded; but see following item]
Coulter, G.W. 1991b. Zoogeography, affinities and evolution, with special regard to the fish. Pp. 275-305 in:
Coulter, G.W. (ed.). Lake Tanganyika and its life. Oxford University Press, Oxford, London, and New York.
Coulter, G.W. 1999. Sustaining both biodiversity and fisheries in ancient lakes. The cases of Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi/Nyasa, and Victoria. Pp. 177-187 in Kawanabe, H., G.W. Coulter, and A.C. Roosevelt (eds.), Ancient lakes: Their cultural and biological diversity. Kenobi Productions, Ghent. xii + 340 pages. ISBN 90-804341-2-4. Review
Coulter, G.W., B.R. Allanson, M.N. Bruton, P.H. Greenwood, R.C. Hart, P.B.N. Jackson, and A.J. Ribbink. 1986. Unique qualities and special problems of the African Great Lakes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 17 (3): 161-183. Abstract
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Crapon de Caprona, M.-D., and B. Fritzsch. 1991. African fishes. Nature 350: 467. download full text [Discussion of A. Meyer et al. (1990); see also reply by A. Meyer et al. (1991)]
Croft, T.A. 1981. Lake Malawi: a case study in conservation planning. Parks 6 (3): 7-11.
Crossley, R. 1982. Ancient flood levels of Lake Malawi. Malawi Review 1: 11-14.
Crossley, R. 1984. Control on sedimentation in the Malawi rift valley, Central Africa. Sedimentary Geology 40: 33-50. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(84)90038-1 Abstract
Crossley, R., and S. Davison-Hirschmann. 1982. High levels of Lake Malawi during the Late Quaternary. Palaeoecologia Africana 15: 109-115.
Crossley, R., and R.B. Owen. 1987. Sedimentation in the Malawi rift and some implications for hydrocarbon exploration in Africa. Pp. 227-230 in: Matheis, G., and H. Schandelmeier (eds.). Current research in African earth sciences. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Crossley, R., and R.B. Owen. 1988. Sand turbidites and organic-rich diatomaceous muds from Lake Malawi, Central Africa. Pp. 369-374 in: Fleet, A.J., K. Kelts, and M.R. Talbot (eds). Lacustrine petroleum source rocks. Geological Society Special Bulletin No. 40. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1988.040.01.30 Abstract
Crossley, R., S. Davison-Hirschmann, R.B. Owen, and P. Shaw. 1984. Lake level fluctuations during the last 2,000 years in Malawi. Pages 305-316 in: Vogel, J.C. (ed.). Late Cainozoic palaeoclimates of the southern hemisphere. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Crowley, T.E., T. Pain, and F.R. Woodward. 1964. A monographic review of the Mollusca of Lake Nyasa. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 131: 1-58.
Crul, R.C.M. 1995a. Limnology and hydrology of Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi. Monographs of the African Great Lakes, 3 pp. [Uncertain if different from next]
Crul, R.C.M. 1995b. Monographs of the African Great Lakes: Limnology and hydrology of Lake Malawi. Paris: UNESCO; UNESCO/IHP-IV Project M-5.1; Part 2 (En): pp. 1-49; appendix 1.
Crul, R.C.M., G.T. Silvestre, D.J. Postma, M.J.P. van Oijen, T.O. Acere, and G. Bongers. 1995. A bibliography of Lake Victoria (East Africa). International Hydrological Programme. IHP-IV Project M-5.1. 174 pages. UNESCO, Paris. download full text
Cummings, K.S. Accessed 11 Aug 2007. Freshwater mussel (Unionoida) genera of the world. http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~ksc/MusselGenera.html [Illustrated with color photographs. Includes genera from L. Malawi]
Cunnington, W.A. 1913. Zoological results of the Third Tanganyika Expedition 1904-1905. Report on the parasitic Branchiura. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913: 262-283. download full text [Added the branchiuran Dolops ranarum to the Lake Nyasa (Malawi) fauna]
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Daget, J. 1998. Catalogue raisonné des Mollusques bivalves d'eau douce africains. Backhuys Publishers, The Netherlands. 329 pp.
Daget, J., J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels, and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde. 1991. Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa [frequently abbreviated as CLOFFA]. Volume 4; xii + 740 pages. ISNB [Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique], Bruxelles; MRAC [Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale], Tervuren, Belgium; and ORSTOM [Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, now called IRD (Institut de recherche pour le développement)], Paris. [Online version of CLOFFA]
Dalton, B.E., T.W. Cronin, N.J. Marshall, and K.L. Carleton. 2010. The fish eye view: are cichlids conspicuous? Journal of Experimental Biology 213 (13): 2243-2255. Abstract
D'Amato, M.E., M.M. Esterhuyse, B.C.W. van der Waal, D. Brink, and F.A.M. Volckaert. 2007. Hybridization and phylogeography of the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus in southern Africa evidenced by mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA genotyping. Conservation Genetics 8: 475-488. Abstract [Includes evidence of hybridization between O. mossambicus and O. karongae of the Lake Malawi basin]
Danley, P.D. 2001. The ecological, behavioral, and genetic factors influencing the diversification of Lake Malawi's rock-dwelling cichlids (East Africa). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Hampshire. [Emphasis on Metriaclima (=Maylandia)] popup abstract
Danley, P.D. 2011. Aggression in closely related Malawi cichlids varies inversely with habitat complexity. Environmental Biology of Fishes 92 (3): 275-284. doi:10.1007/s10641-011-9838-7 Abstract
Danley P.D., M. Husemann, B. Ding, L.M. Dipietro, E.J. Beverly, and D.J. Peppe. 2012. The impact of the geologic history and paleoclimate on the diversification of East African cichlids. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2012: 574851, 20 pp. doi:10.1155/2012/574851 Abstract download full text
Danley, P.D., and T.D. Kocher. 2001. Speciation in rapidly diverging systems: Lessons from Lake Malawi. Molecular Ecology 10 (5): 1075-1086. Abstract download full text
Danley, P.D., J.A. Markert, M.E. Arnegard, and T.D. Kocher. 2000. Divergence with gene flow in the rock-dwelling cichlids of Lake Malawi. Evolution 54 (5): 1725-1737. Abstract download full text
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Darchambeau, F., H. Sarmento, and J.-P. Descy. 2013. Primary production in a tropical large lake: The role of phytoplankton composition. Science of the Total Environment 473–474 (issue for 4 March 2014): 178–188. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.036 Abstract [Study done in Lake Kivu, with comparisons to lakes Malawi and Tanganyika]
Darwall, W. 2001. Preliminary investigations of community level responses to benthic trawling in the demersal fish fauna of Lake Malawi/Niassa, Africa. Pages 189-194 in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (eds.). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001. Government of Malawi.
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Darwall, W.R.T., E.H. Allison, G.F. Turner, and K. Irvine. 2010. Lake of flies, or lake of fish? A trophic model of Lake Malawi. Ecological Modelling 221 (4): 713-727. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.11.001 Abstract
Day, J.J., J.A. Cotton, and T.G. Barraclough. 2008 Tempo and mode of diversification of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. PLoS ONE 3 (3): e1730. Abstract download full text
Day, J.J., S. Santini, and J. Garcia-Moreno. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini: The story from mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45 (2): 629-642. Abstract
De Batist, M., P. Van Rensbergen, S. Back, and J. Klerkx. 1996. Structural framework, sequence stratigraphy and lake level variations in the Livingstone Basin (northern Lake Malawi): First results of a high-resolution reflection seismic study. Pages 509-522 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
DeBusk, G.H., Jr. 1994. Transport and stratigraphy of pollen In Lake Malawi, Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, N.C. popup abstract
DeBusk, G.H., Jr. 1997. The distribution of pollen in the surface sediments of Lake Malawi, Africa, and the transport of pollen in large lakes. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 97 (1-2): 123-153. popup abstract
DeBusk, G.H., Jr. 1998. A 37,500-year pollen record from Lake Malawi and implications for the biogeography of afromontane forests. Journal of Biogeography 25 (3): 479-500. popup abstract
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Degnbol, P. 1982a. Food habits and zooplankton consumption by larval Chaoborus edulis in Lake Malawi. FAO Field Document 24, FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Degnbol, P. 1982b. Food habits of larval Engraulicypris sardella in Lake Malawi: Diurnal feeding pattern and comparison of size groups. Pp. 57-67 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Degnbol, P. 1990. The pelagic zone of central Lake Malawi - a trophic box model. ICES Theme Session on Trophic Models in Aquatic Ecosystems, Copenhagen, Oct. 1990. ICES CM 90/L:30. Theme session Q (mimeographed). Pp. 110-115 in: Christensen, V., and D. Pauly (eds.). Trophic models in aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM conference proceedings, no. 26. ICLARM, Manila. ISSN: 0115-4435; ISBN: 971-1022-84-2. [ICES = International Council for the Exploration of the Sea; ICLARM = International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, now called WorldFish Center] popup abstract
Degnbol, P., and S. Mapila. 1982. Limnological observations on the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi from 1978 to 1981. Pp. 3-48 [also seen as pp. 5-67] in: Fishery Expansion Project, Malawi. Biological Studies on the Pelagic Ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FI:DP/MLW/75/019 Technical Report 1. FAO, Rome, 182 pp.
Delaney, L.M., D.M. Jamu, and C.E. Campbell. 2007. Abundance and distribution of fish in the lower Mnembo River, Malawi-Mozambique. African Journal of Ecology 45 (3): 390-397. Abstract [Although the Mnembo R. flows into L. Chilwa, the latter lake shares a number of species with L. Malawi, some of which are treated in this paper]
Delvaux, D. 1995. Age of Lake Malawi (Nyasa) and water level fluctuations. Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren), Département de Géologie et Minéralogie, rapport annuel 1993 & 1994: 99-108.
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DeMason, L. 1993. Similar species found on opposite coastlines in northern Lake Malawi - more clues to a step-wise speciation? The Cichlids Yearbook, Volume 3: 37-40. Cichlid Press, St. Leon-Rot, Germany; 96 pp.
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deMenocal, P.B., and D. Rind. 1996. Sensitivity of subtropical African and Asian climate to prescribed boundary condition changes: Model implications for the Plio-Pleistocene evolution of low-latitude climate. Pages 57-78 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
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Derman, B., and A. Ferguson. 1995. Human rights, environment, and development: the dispossession of fishing communities on Lake Malawi. Human Ecology 23 (2): 125-142.
Deutsch, J.C. 1997. Colour diversification in Malawi cichlids: evidence for adaptation, reinforcement, or sexual selection? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 62: 1-14. popup abstract
Dickie, G. 1879. Notes on algae from Lake Nyassa, E. Africa. Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany) 17: 281-283.
Dijkstra, P.D., O. Seehausen, B.L.A. Gricar, M.E. Maan, and T.G.G. Groothuis. 2006. Can male-male competition stabilize speciation? A test in Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59 (5): 704-713. doi:10.1007/s00265-005-0100-1 Abstract [In Pundamilia spp.]
Dijkstra, P.D., O. Seehausen, and T.G. Groothuis. 2008. Intrasexual competition among females and the stabilization of a conspicuous colour polymorphism in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 275 (1634): 519-526. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1441 Abstract download full text
Dijkstra, P.D., O. Seehausen, M.E. Pierotti, and T.G. Groothuis. 2007. Male-male competition and speciation: aggression bias towards differently coloured rivals varies between stages of speciation in a Lake Victoria cichlid species complex. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20 (2): 496-502. Abstract download full text [In Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei]
Dill, L.M. 1990. Distance-to-cover and the escape decisions of an African cichlid fish, Melanochromis chipokae. Environmental Biology of Fishes 27: 147-152. doi:10.1007/BF00001944 Abstract
Ding, B., J. Curole, M. Husemann, and P.D. Danley. 2014. Habitat complexity predicts the community diversity of rock-dwelling cichlid fish in Lake Malawi, East Africa. Hydrobiologia (epub June 2014 ahead of print). doi:10.1007/s10750-014-1932-3 Abstract
Dingerkus, G., and L.D. Uhler. 1977. Enzyme clearing of alcian blue stained whole small vertebrates for demonstration of cartilage. Stain Technology 52 (4): 229-232. popup abstract [See also W.R. Taylor & Van Dyke (1985)]
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DiPalma, F., C. Kidd, R. Borowsky, and T.D. Kocher. 2007 Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for two model fish species: the Lake Malawi cichlid (Metriaclima zebra), and the blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus). Zebrafish 4 (in press). download full text
Dixey, F. 1927. The Tertiary and post-Tertiary lacustrine sediments of the Nyasa Rift-Valley. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 83 (3), 16 pp.
Dixon, B.A., D. Straub, and J. Truscott. 1997. Isolation of Clostridium difficile (Prevot) from the African cichlid, Nimbochromis venustus (Boulenger), with "Malawi bloat." Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences 8 (2): 35-38. popup abstract
Dobberfuhl, A.P., J.F. Ullmann, and C.A. Shumway. 2005. Visual acuity, environmental complexity, and social organization in african cichlid fishes. Behavioral Neuroscience 119 (6): 1648-1655. Abstract [In Lake Tanganyikan ectodines Asprotilapia leptura, Xenotilapia spilotera, X. flavipinnis, and Enantiopus melanogenys]
Dobson, T.A., and K.D. Lynch. 2003. As nearshore stocks drop, Malawi begins a return to local fisheries management. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 232-242. Abstract
Dohrn, H. 1865. List of the land and freshwater shells of the Zambesi and Lake Nyassa, eastern tropical Africa, collected by John Kirk, M.D., F.L.S., &c. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865: 231-234. download full text
Dolozi, M.B., L.S.N. Kalindekafe, C. Ngongondo, and Z. Dulanya. 2011. A comparative analysis of the distribution, composition and geochemistry of surface sediments in the Linthipe and Songwe River deltas of Lake Malawi. Journal of African Earth Sciences 60 (3): 93-105. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2011.02.002 Abstract
Dominey, W.J. 1984. Effects of sexual selection and life history on speciation: Species flocks in African cichlids and Hawaiian Drosophila. Pp. 231-249 in Echelle, A.A., and I. Kornfield (eds.), Evolution of fish species flocks. University of Maine at Orono Press. popup abstract
Donda, S.J., and R. Bell. 1993. Community participation consultancy report, Vol. I. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department, Lilongwe.
Drayton, R.S. 1979. A study of the causes of the abnormally high levels of Lake Malawi in 1979. Malawi Water Resources Division Report WRD-No. TP.5.
Drayton, R.S. 1984. Variation in the level of Lake Malawi. Hydrological Sciences Journal 29: 1-12. (ISSN: 0324-8372) Abstract download full text
Drayton, R.S., C.H.R. Kidd, A.N. Mandeville, and J.B. Miller. 1980. A regional analysis of floods and low flows in Malawi. Institute of Hydrology, Report No 72, Wallingford, UK. 79 pp.
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Drill, S.L. 2002. Biodiversity conservation and community-based fisheries management in Lake Malawi, East Africa (Malawi, Mozambique). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. popup abstract
Duftner, N., S. Koblmüller, and C. Sturmbauer. 2005. Evolutionary relationships of the Limnochromini, a tribe of benthic deepwater cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Journal of Molecular Evolution 60 (3): 277-289. Abstract
Duftner, N., K.M. Sefc, S. Koblmüller, B. Nevado, E. Verheyen, H. Phiri, and C. Sturmbauer. 2006. Distinct population structure in a phenotypically homogeneous rock-dwelling cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika. Molecular Ecology 15 (9): 2381-2395. Abstract [In Variabilichromis moorii]
Duftner, N., K.M. Sefc, S. Koblmüller, W. Salzburger, M. Taborsky, and C. Sturmbauer. 2007. Parallel evolution of facial stripe patterns in the Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher species complex endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45 (2): 706-715. Epub 2007 Aug 15. Abstract
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Duponchelle, F., H. Bootsma, A.J. Ribbink, C. Davis, A. Msukwa, J. Mafuka, and D. Mandere. 2000. Temporal diet patterns of some Lake Malawi demersal fish species as revealed by stomach contents and stable isotope analysis. Pages 189-201 in: Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000. download full text [Citation: see under Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000 (below)]
Duponchelle, F., E. Paradis, A.J. Ribbink, and G.F. Turner. 2008. Parallel life history evolution in mouthbrooding cichlids from the African Great Lakes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 105 (40): 15475-15480. Abstract download full text
Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.). 2000. Fish Ecology Report. Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Biodiversity Conservation Project. SADC/GEF (Southern African Development Community, Gaborone, Botswana / Global Environmental Facility, Washington, D.C.). [325 pages plus covers; numbered as 1-273 with numerous unnumbered pages]. download full text [4.9 Mb, complete volume including all 6 chapters individually cited above and below. Note: Bookmarks, and links on the Contents page, facilitate navigation within the searchable electronic document.]
Duponchelle, F., A.J. Ribbink, A. Msukwa, J. Mafuka, and D. Mandere. 2000a. Temporal trends of trawl catches in the North of the South West Arm, Lake Malawi. Pages 5-14 in: Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000. download full text [Citation: see under Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000.]
Duponchelle, F., A.J. Ribbink, A. Msukwa, J. Mafuka, and D. Mandere. 2000b. Depth distribution and breeding patterns of the demersal species most commonly caught by trawling in the South West Arm of Lake Malawi. Pages 15-168 in: Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000. [Includes 19 color paintings by Dave Voorvelt of cichlid species caught by trawling] download full text [Citation: see under Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000.]
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Duponchelle, F., A.J. Ribbink, A. Msukwa, J. Mafuka, and D. Mandere. 2000c. Growth patterns of some of the most important demersal fish species caught by trawling in the South West Arm of Lake Malawi. Pages 169-188 in: Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000. [The species are Alticorpus 'geoffreyi', Alt. macrocleithrum, Alt. mentale, Alt. pectinatum, Aulonocara 'blue orange', Aul. 'minutus', Copadichromis quadrimaculatus, C. virginalis, Diplotaxodon apogon, D. argenteus, D. limnothrissa, D. macrops, Pallidochromis tokolosh, Lethrinops argenteus, L. 'deep water altus', L. gossei, L. longimanus, L. 'oliveri', L. polli, Mylochromis anaphyrmus, Nyassachromis 'argyrosoma', Placidochromis 'platyrhynchos', and Trematocranus brevirostris.] download full text [Citation: see under Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000.]
Duponchelle, F., A.J. Ribbink, A. Msukwa, J. Mafuka, and D. Mandere. 2000d. The potential influence of fluvial sediments on rock-dwelling fish communities. Pages 227-264 in: Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000. download full text [Citation: see under Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000.]
Duponchelle, F., A.J. Ribbink, A. Msukwa, J. Mafuka, and D. Mandere. 2003. Seasonal and spatial patterns of experimental trawl catches in the southwest arm of Lake Malawi. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 216-231. Abstract
Duponchelle, F., A.J. Ribbink, A. Msukwa, J. Mafuka, D. Mandere, and H. Bootsma. 2005. Food partitioning within the species-rich benthic fish community of Lake Malawi, East Africa. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 1651-1664. Abstract
Duponchelle, F., J. Snoeks, M. Hanssens, J-F. Agnèse, A.J. Ribbink, A. Msukwa, J. Mafuka, and D. Mandere. 2000. Morphometric, genetic and ecological comparison of two important demersal species along a gradient from the South West Arm to Nkhata Bay. Pages 202-226 in: Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000. [The species are Mylochromis anaphyrmus and Lethrinops gossei.] download full text [Citation: see under Duponchelle, F., and A.J. Ribbink (eds.) 2000.]
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Ebinger, C., M.J. Crow, B.R. Rosendahl, D.A. Livingstone, and J. LeFournier. 1984. Structural evolution of Lake Malawi, Africa. Nature 308: 627-629.
Ebinger C.J., A.L. Deino, A.L. Tesha, T. Becker, and U. Ring. 1993. Tectonic controls on rift basin morphology - evolution of the northern Malawi (Nyasa) Rift. Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth 98: 17821-17836.
Ebinger, C.J., B.R. Rosendahl, and D.J. Reynolds. 1987. Tectonic model of the Malawi rift, Africa. Tectonophysics 141: 215-235.
Eccles, D.H. 1973. Two new species of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi (formerly known as Lake Nyasa). Arnoldia (Rhodesia) 6 (16): 1-7. ["Pseudotropheus" johannii, Melanochromis simulans] download full text
Eccles, D.H. 1974. An outline of the physical limnology of Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa). Limnology and Oceanography 19 (5): 730-742. download full text
Eccles, D.H. 1975. Fishes of the African Great Lakes as candidates for introduction into large tropical impoundments. Journal of Fish Biology 7 (3): 401-405. popup abstract
Eccles, D.H. 1984. On the recent high-levels of Lake Malawi. South African Journal of Science 80 (10): 461-468.
Eccles, D.H. 1985. Lake flies and sardines - a cautionary note. Biological Conservation 33 (4): 309-333.
Eccles, D.H. 1986. Is speciation of demersal fishes in Lake Tanganyika restrained by physical limnological conditions? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 29: 115-122. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1986.tb01826.x Abstract
Eccles, D.H. 1988. A quarter century of Great Lakes research in Africa. Journal of the Limnological Society of Southern Africa 14 (1): 41-48.
Eccles, D.H. 1989. [Descriptions of Aulonocara guentheri, Protomelas macrodon, and Tyrannochromis nigriventer, in Eccles & Trewavas (1989)]
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Eccles, D.H. 1992. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Tanzania. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. vi + 145 pp. ["Prepared and published with the support of the United Nations Development Programme, Project URT/87/016."] popup abstract download full text [Includes good line drawings of fishes not illustrated elsewhere, some of which are reproduced on this Web site.]
Eccles, D.H., and D.S.C. Lewis. 1976. A taxonomic study of the genus Docimodus Boulenger (Pisces, Cichlidae) a group of fishes with unusual feeding habits from Lake Malawi. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 58: 165-172. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1976.tb00826.x popup abstract [Including D. evelynae n. sp.]
Eccles, D.H., and D.S.C. Lewis. 1977. A revision of the genus Lethrinops Regan (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Part 1. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Number 36, 12 pp. popup abstract [Including L. stridei and L. microdon n. spp.]
Eccles, D.H., and D.S.C. Lewis. 1978. A taxonomic study of the genus Lethrinops Regan (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Part 2. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Number 37, 11 pp. popup abstract [Including L. longipinnis n. sp.]
Eccles, D.H., and D.S.C. Lewis. 1979. A taxonomic study of the genus Lethrinops Regan (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Part 3. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Number 38, 25 pp. popup abstract [Including L. mylodon mylodon n. sp. and L. mylodon borealis n. subsp.]
Eccles, D.H., and D.S.C. Lewis. 1981. Midwater spawning in Haplochromis chrysonotus (Boulenger) (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Lake Malawi. Environmental Biology of Fishes 6 (2): 201-202. doi:10.1007/BF00002783 Abstract
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Eccles, D.H., and E. Trewavas. 1989. Malawian cichlid fishes. The classification of some Haplochromine genera. Lake Fish Movies, Herten, Germany, 335 pp. ordering information
Eccles, D.H., D. Tweddle, and P.H. Skelton. 2011. Eight new species in the dwarf catfish genus Zaireichthys (Siluriformes: Amphiliidae). Smithiana no. 13: 3-28. ISSN 1684-4130. download full text [Includes description of Zaireichthys lacustris n. sp., the Lake Malawi shell-dwelling catfish]
Egger, B., M. Meekan, W. Salzburger, L. Mwape, L. Makasa, R. Shapola, and C. Sturmbauer. 2004. Validation of the periodicity of increment formation in the otoliths of a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Journal of Fish Biology 64 (5): 1272-1284. [The cichlid is Tropheus moorii] popup abstract
Egger, B., B. Obermüller, H. Phiri, C. Sturmbauer, and K.M. Sefc. 2006. Monogamy in the maternally mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Tropheus moorii. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 273 (1595): 1797-1802. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3504 Abstract download full text
Eldblom, C., and T.K. Kristensen. 2003. A revision of the genus Melanoides (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) in Lake Malawi. African Zoology 38 (2): 357-369. popup abstract
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Elmer, K.R., C. Reggio, T. Wirth, E. Verheyen, W. Salzburger, and A. Meyer. 2009. Pleistocene desiccation in East Africa bottlenecked but did not extirpate the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 106 (32): 13404-13409. Abstract download full text
Engler, A. 1899. Berichte über die botanischen Ergebnisse der Nyassa-See- und Kinga-Gebirgs-Expedition der Hermann- und Elise- geb. Heckmann-Wentzel- Stiftung. Botanische Jahrbuch Systematik 27: 221-222.
Engler, A. [190?]. Berichte über die botanischen Ergebnisse der Nyassa-See und Kinga-Gebirgs-Expedition der Hermann- und Elise- geb. Heckmann-Wentzel- Stiftung. IV. Die von W. Goetze am Rukwa-See und Nyassa-See sowie in den zwischen beiden Seen gelegenen Gebirgs-ländern, insbesondere dem Kinga- Gebirge gesammelten Pflanzen, nebst einigen Nachtragen (durch bezeichnet) zu Bericht III. Engler's Botanische Jahrbuch 30: 239-255.
Erlandsson, A., and A.J. Ribbink. 1997. Patterns of sexual size dimorphism in African cichlid fishes. South African Journal of Science 93: 498-508. popup abstract download full text
Erpenbeck, D., T. Weier, N.J. de Voogd, G. Wörheide, P. Sutcliffe, J.A. Todd, and E. Michel. 2011. Insights into the evolution of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina): Barcoding and phylogenetic data from Lake Tanganyika endemics indicate multiple invasions and unsettle existing taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 231-236. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.05.021 Abstract
Eschmeyer, W.N. 1990. Catalog of the genera of Recent fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, vi + 697 pp. [Available online, complete with species too: Catalog of Fishes]
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Eulderink, F., B. Gryseels, W.J. van Kampen, and J. de Regt. 1994. Haematobium schistosomiasis presenting in the Netherlands as a skin disease. American Journal of Dermatopathology 16 (4): 434-438. Abstract [Case report of a traveler who had swum in Lake Malawi]
Evers, B.N., H. Madsen, K.M. [sic] McKaye, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2006. The schistosome intermediate host, Bulinus nyassanus, is a 'preferred' food for the cichlid fish, Trematocranus placodon, at Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 100 (1): 75-85. Abstract
Evers, B.N., H. Madsen, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2011. Crush-resistance of soft-sediment gastropods of Lake Malawi: implications for prey selection by Molluscivorous fishes. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 26 (1): 85-90. doi:10.1080/02705060.2011.553921 Abstract
  FAO. 1976a. Promotion of integrated fishery development, Malawi. FI:DP/MLW/77/516 Technical Report 1: 73. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. [See also next item]
FAO. 1976b. Promotion of integrated fishery development, Malawi. FI:DP/MLW/75/109, Technical Report 1. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. [See also previous item]
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FAO. 1982. Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
FAO. 1983. Malawi: fishery country profile. FID/CP/MLW/Rev.2: 5 pp. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
FAO. 1992. Fisheries management in the south-east arm of Lake Malawi, the upper Shire river and Lake Malombe with special reference to the fisheries on chambo (Oreochromis spp.) FI:DP/MLW/86/013. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. [See also next item]
FAO. 1993a. Fisheries management in the south-east arm of Lake Malawi, the Upper Shire River and Lake Malombe, with particular reference to the fisheries on chambo (Oreochromis spp.). CIFA Technical Paper No. 21: 113. Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. download full text [See also previous item]
FAO. 1993b. Enhancement of the role of women in inland fisheries and aquaculture development project. Southern African region: Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Project findings and recommendations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. FI: GCP/RAF/273/JPN, Terminal Report: 1-9.
FAO. 1993c. Projet régional pour la planification, le développement et l'aménagement des pêches continentales en Afrique Orientale/Centrale/Australe (PPEC). Projet régional - Afrique: Burundi, Ethiopie, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, République Unie de Tanzanie, Ouganda, Zaire, Zambie, Zimbabwe. Conclusions et recommandations du projet. Rome: PNUD/FAO; FI/DP/RAF/87/099, Rapport terminal: 1-40.
FAO. 1994. Fisheries characteristics of the shared lakes of the East African Rift. CIFA Technical Paper 24:27-28. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
FAO. 1995. Chambo fisheries research, Malawi: project findings and recommendations. FI:DP/MLW/86/013. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
FAO. 1999. Fishery country profile: Malawi. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
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Farias, I.P., G. Ortí, and A. Meyer. 2000. Total evidence: Molecules, morphology, and the phylogenetics of cichlid fishes. Journal of Experimental Zoology 288 (1): 76-92. Abstract download full text [A large data set (1460 characters) confirms the basal placement in Cichlidae of the Malagasy/Indian clade among cichlids, and corroborates all Neotropical cichlids as a monophyletic group, all African cichlids as a monophyletic group, and my "baby," Heterochromis (Oliver, 1979; Oliver, 1984), as the basal member of the latter. The paper concentrates on the Neotropical clade. See Sparks & Smith (2004) for a more recent study with more emphasis on African cichlids]
Farias, I.P., G. Ortí, I. Sampaio, H. Schneider, and A. Meyer. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the family Cichlidae: Monophyly and fast molecular evolution of the Neotropical assemblage. Journal of Molecular Evolution 48: 703-711. download full text [Includes discussion of African cichlids and especially a discussion of the still-controversial relationships of the West African Heterochromis.]
Farias, I.P., G. Ortí, I. Sampaio, H. Schneider, and A. Meyer. 2001. The cytochrome b gene as a phylogenetic marker: The limits of resolution for analyzing relationships among cichlid fishes. Journal of Molecular Evolution 53(2): 89-103. Abstract download full text
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Ferguson, A.E., B. Derman, and R.M. Mkandawire. 1993. The new development rhetoric and Lake Malawi. Africa 63: 1-18.
Fermon, Y. 1996. Les Haplochromis spp. (Teleostei, Cichlidae) des zones rocheuses du Mwanza Gulf, lac Victoria, Tanzanie: structure des communautés et écomorphologie. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Muséum National d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, [vi] + xi + 270 + [i] pp. download full text
Fermon, Y. and C. Cibert. 1998. Ecomorphological individual variation in a population of Haplochromis nyererei from the Tanzanian part of Lake Victoria. Journal of Fish Biology 53 (1): 66-83. popup abstract
Ferraris, C.J., Jr. 2007. Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types. Zootaxa 1418. Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand, 628 pp. ISBN 978-1-86977-058-7 (hardback), ISBN 978-1-86977-059-4 (online edition). download full text [Includes all catfish species found in Lake Malawi, with details of their authorship, synonymy, type locality, and type specimen(s). Nomenclature differs in several cases from that long considered standard, but this excellent open-access treatise is authoritative.]
Figueroa, F., W.E. Mayer, H. Sultmann, C. O'hUigín, H. Tichy, Y. Satta, N. Takezaki, N. Takahata, and J. Klein. 2000. Mhc class IIB gene evolution in East African cichlid fishes. Immunogenetics 51 (7): 556-575. popup abstract
Filippi, M.L., and M.R. Talbot. 2005. The palaeolimnology of northern Lake Malawi over the last 25 ka based upon the elemental and stable isotopic composition of sedimentary organic matter. Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (10-11): 1303-1328. Abstract
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Finney, B.P., C.A. Scholz, T.C. Johnson, S. Trumbore, and J. Southon. 1996. Late Quaternary lake-level changes of Lake Malawi. Pages 495-508 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds.). The limnology, climatology, and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon & Breach, Toronto.
Fitzpatrick, J.L., J.K. Desjardins, N. Milligan, R. Montgomerie, and S. Balshine. 2007. Reproductive-tactic-specific variation in sperm swimming speeds in a shell-brooding cichlid. Biology of Reproduction 77: 280-284. Abstract download full text [In Telmatochromis vittatus of L. Tanganyika]
Fitzpatrick, J.L., J.K. Desjardins, N. Milligan, K.A. Stiver, R. Montgomerie, and S. Balshine. 2008. Female-mediated causes and consequences of status change in a social fish. Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society 275 (1637): 929-936. Abstract [In Neolamprologus pulcher of L. Tanganyika]
Foerster, W., and M. Schartl. 1987. Karyotype and isozyme patterns of five species of Aulonocara Regan, 1922. Pages 55-62 in: Klausewitz, W. (ed.). Contributions to the knowledge of the cichlid fishes of the genus Aulonocara of Lake Malawi (East-Africa). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 94.
Forsell, J., P. Ekström, I. Novales Flamarique, and B. Holmqvist. 2001. Expression of pineal ultraviolet- and green-like opsins in the pineal organ and retina of teleosts. Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 2517-2525. Abstract download full text [Includes discussion of opsins of L. Malawi cichlids]
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Fowler, H.W. 1935. Scientific results of the Vernay-Lang Kalahari expedition, March to September, 1930. Fresh-water fishes. Annals of the Transvaal Museum: 251-293. [Barbus bifrenatus]
Fowler, H.W. 1958. Some new taxonomic names of fishlike vertebrates. Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) 1-16. [Labeo worthingtoni]
François, R., C.H. Pilskaln, and M.A. Altabet. 1996. Seasonal variation in the nitrogen isotopic composition of sediment trap materials collected in Lake Malawi. Pages 241-250 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Fraser, G.J., R.F. Bloomquist, and J.T. Streelman. 2008. A periodic pattern generator for dental diversity. BMC Biology 6: 32. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-32 Abstract download full text [Studied in Cynotilapia afra, Metriaclima [=Maylandia] zebra, and Labeotropheus fuelleborni]
Fraser, G.J., R.F. Bloomquist, and J.T. Streelman. 2013. Common developmental pathways link tooth shape to regeneration. Developmental Biology 377 (2): 399-414. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2013.02.007 Abstract
Fraser, G.J., C.D. Hulsey, R.F. Bloomquist, K. Uyesugi, N.R. Manley, and J.T. Streelman. 2009. An ancient gene network is co-opted for teeth on old and new jaws. PLoS Biology 7 (2): e1000031. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000031 Summary download full text ["Our models for this project are cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi...." Species studied include Copadichromis conophoros, Dimidiochromis compressiceps, Metriaclima [=Maylandia] zebra, and Labeotropheus fuelleborni]
Friedman, M.A., B.P. Keck, A. Dornburg, R.I. Eytan, C.H. Martin, C.D. Hulsey, P.C. Wainwright, and T.J. Near. 2013. Molecular and fossil evidence place the origin of cichlid fishes long after Gondwanan rifting. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280 (1770): 1-8. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1733 Abstract download full text [Includes a few Lake Malawi cichlids, and numerous Lake Tanganyika cichlids, in their phylogenies. More in the supporting materials, linked in the full text]
Fryer, G. 1956a. New species of cichlid fishes from Lake Nyasa. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 53: 81-91. [Labidochromis caeruleus, Pseudotropheus elongatus, P. fuscoides, P. minutus]
Fryer, G. 1956b. A new species of Labeotropheus from Lake Nyasa, with a redescription of Labeotropheus fuelleborni Ahl, and some notes on the genus Labeotropheus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 54: 280-289. [L. trewavasae.] download full text
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Fryer, G. 1956c. Biological notes on some cichlid fishes of Lake Nyasa. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 54: 1-7. [The first report of Nimbochromis livingstonii shamming death, and other interesting behavioral observations. Fryer also suggests a function for the "Tilapia mark" in the dorsal fin of young tilapias.]
Fryer, G. 1956d. New species of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods from sandy beaches of Lake Nyasa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) 9: 225-249. doi:10.1080/00222935608655810 with first page preview
Fryer, G. 1956e. A report on the parasitic Copepoda and Branchiura of the fishes of Lake Nyasa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 127 (3): 293-344. download full text (2.4 Mb) [Descriptions and, usually, drawings of: Copepoda: Ergasilus macrodactylus (Sars), Trigasilus minutus (new genus & sp.), Lamproglena nyasae (new sp.), L. clariae (new sp.), Lernaea bagri Harding, L. lophiara Harding, L. hardingi ("nom. n." but I think actually new species), L. tilapiae Harding, L. palati Harding, L. barnimiana (Hartmann), L. sp., Afrolernaea longicollis (new genus & sp.); Branchiura: Argulus africanus Thiele, A. jollymani, Dolops ranarum (Stuhlmann), and Chonopeltis inermis Thiele.]
Fryer, G. 1957a. A new species of Gephyrochromis (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Nyasa, with notes on its ecology and affinities. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 55: 347-352. [Gephyrochromis lawsi] download full text
Fryer, G. 1957b. Freeliving freshwater Crustacea from Lake Nyasa and adjoining waters. Part I. Copepoda. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 53: 62-86.
Fryer, G. 1957c. Freeliving freshwater Crustacea from Lake Nyassa and adjoining waters. Part II. Cladocera and Conchostraca. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 53: 223-239.
Fryer, G. 1957d. Freeliving freshwater Crustacea from Lake Nyasa and adjoining waters. Part III. General remarks with notes on certain Malacostraca and Ostracoda. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 53: 527-536.
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Fryer, G. 1959a. The trophic interrelationships and ecology of some littoral communities of Lake Nyasa with especial reference to the fishes, and a discussion of the evolution of a group of rock-frequenting Cichlidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 132: 153-281. [The classic ecological study of this lake, now available for download below] Summary of Part I: popup abstract Summary of Part II: popup abstract Complete document: download full text 6.8 Mb; Updated now word-searchable, with numerous internal links including Table of Contents
Fryer, G. 1959b. Some aspects of evolution in Lake Nyasa. Evolution 13 (4): 440-451. [Criticised by Myers (1960).]
Fryer, G. 1960a. Evolution of fishes in Lake Nyasa. Evolution 14: 396-400. [A reply to Myers (1960).]
Fryer, G. 1960b. Some controversial aspects of speciation of African cichlid fishes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 133: 629-647.
Fryer, G. 1960c. The feeding mechanism of some atyid prawns of the genus Caridina. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 64: 217-244.
Fryer, G. 1965. Predation and its effects on migration and speciation in African fishes: A comment. With further comments by P.H. Greenwood, a reply by P.B.N. Jackson and a footnote and postscript by G. Fryer. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 144: 301-322.
Fryer, G. 1968. The parasitic Crustacea of African freshwater fishes: Their biology and distribution. Journal of Zoology (London) 156 (1): 45-95.
Fryer, G. 1969. Speciation and adaptive radiation in African lakes. Verhandlungen der Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 17: 303-322.
Fryer, G. 1972. Conservation of the Great Lakes of East Africa: A lesson and a warning. Biological Conservation 4 (4): 256-262. popup abstract
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Fryer, G. 1977. Evolution of species flocks of cichlid fishes in African lakes. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 15: 141-165.
Fryer, G. 1996. Endemism, speciation and adaptive radiation in great lakes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 45: 109-131. [Not seen] popup abstract
Fryer, G. 1999. Local knowledge of the fishes of the ancient lakes of Africa, and an example of comprehensive understanding. Pp. 263-270 in: Kawanabe, H., G. Coulter, and C. Roosevelt (eds.). Ancient lakes: Their cultural and biological diversities. Kenobi Productions, Ghent (Belgium).
Fryer, G. 2000. Unanticipated diversity: The discovery and biological exploration of Africa's ancient lakes. Pp. 1-15 in: Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe, eds. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, volume 31. Academic Press, London.
Fryer, G. 2001. On the age and origin of the species flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 268 (1472): 1147-1152. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1601 Abstract download full text [Disputing the alleged extreme youth (12,400 years) of that flock]
Fryer, G. 2006. Evolution in ancient lakes: Radiation of Tanganyikan atyid prawns and speciation of pelagic cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi. Hydrobiologia 568 (Supplement 1): 131-142. doi:10.1007/s10750-006-0322-x Abstract ["Pelagic fish from Lake Malawi do not represent an example of sympatric speciation as suggested by Shaw et al. (2000). It is more likely that several, independent radiations started from inshore generalists, which gradually adapted to the openwater."]
Fryer, G. 2007. Erratum. Evolution in ancient lakes: Radiation of Tanganyikan atyid prawns and speciation of pelagic cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi. Hydrobiologia. doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9155-5 [Erratum to Fryer 2006, immediately above]
Fryer, G., P.H. Greenwood, and J.F. Peake. 1983. Punctuated equilibria, morphological stasis and the palaeontological documentation of speciation: A biological appraisal of a case history in an African lake. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 195-205. popup abstract
Fryer, G., P.H. Greenwood, and J.F. Peake. 1985. The demonstration of speciation in fossil molluscs and living fishes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 26: 325-336. popup abstract
Fryer, G., P.H. Greenwood, and E. Trewavas. 1955. Scale-eating habits of African cichlid fishes. Nature 175: 1089-1090. download full text
Fryer, G., and T. Iles. 1955. Predation pressure and evolution in Lake Nyasa. Nature 176: 470. download full text
Fryer, G., and T.D. Iles. 1969. Alternative routes to evolutionary success as exhibited by African cichlid fishes of the genus Tilapia and the species flocks of the Great Lakes. Evolution 23: 359-369.
Fryer, G., and T.D. Iles. 1972. The cichlid fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh; TFH Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey; 641 pp. [This landmark synthesis is still an engaging read, though now quite dated - in part because of its success in stimulating research programs]
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Galis, F., and E.G. Drucker. 1996. Pharyngeal biting mechanics in centrarchid and cichlid fishes: insights into a key evolutionary innovation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 9: 641-670. Abstract
Galis, F., and J.A.J. Metz. 1997. Why are there so many cichlid species? On the interplay of speciation and adaptive radiation. IIASA Interim Report IR-97-72. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria. download full text [Relates chiefly to Lake Victoria. Also published in Trends in Ecology and Evolution (1998) 13: 1-2. First paragraph ]
Gasse, F. 1986. East African diatoms. Taxonomy, ecological distribution. Bibliotheca Diatomologica 11. 201 pages, 44 plates, 1 map. ISBN 3-443-57003-8. Publisher's blurb & ordering information
Gasse, F. 2000. Hydrological changes in the African tropics since the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 189-211. download full text [Nice map of major African lake and river systems, and considerable information about Lake Malawi]
Gasse, F., P. Barker, and T.C. Johnson. 2002. A 24,600 year diatom record from the northern basin of Lake Malawi. Pp. 393-414 in: E.O. Odada and D.O. Olago (editors). The East African Great Lakes: Limnology, Palaeoclimatology and Biodiversity. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Gasse, F., J.F. Talling, and P. Kilham. 1983. Diatom assemblages in East Africa: Classification, distribution and ecology. Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale 16: 3-34.
Gavrilets, S., and J.B. Losos. 2009. Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science 323 (5915): 732-737. [Includes consideration of Petrotilapia spp.]
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Genner, M.J., A. Botha, and G.F. Turner. 2006. Translocations of rocky habitat cichlid fishes to Nkhata Bay, Lake Malawi. Journal of Fish Biology 69: 622-628. download full text [Includes color photos of the translocated taxa]
Genner, M.J., E. Connell, A. Shechonge, A. Smith, J. Swanstrom, S. Mzighani, A. Mwijage, B.P. Ngatunga, and G.F. Turner. 2013. Nile tilapia invades the Lake Malawi catchment. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38 Supplement 1: 85-90. doi:10.2989/16085914.2013.842157 Abstract
Genner, M.J., S.J. Hawkins, and G.F. Turner. 2003. Isotopic change throughout the life history of a Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Journal of Fish Biology 62: 907-917. Abstract download full text
Genner, M.J., M.E. Knight, M.P. Haesler, and G.F. Turner. 2010. Establishment and expansion of Lake Malawi rock fish populations after a dramatic Late Pleistocene lake level rise. Molecular Ecology 19 (1): 170-182. [Epub 30 Nov 2009 ahead of print] doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04434.x Abstract
Genner, M.J., and E. Michel. 2003. Fine-scale habitat associations of soft-sediment gastropods at Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi. Journal of Molluscan Studies 69: 325-328. download full text
Genner, M.J., E. Michel, D. Erpenbeck, N. de Voogd, F. Witte, and J.-P. Pointier. 2004. Camouflaged invasion of Lake Malawi by an Oriental gastropod. Molecular Ecology 13 (8): 2135-2141. Abstract download full text
Genner, M.J., E. Michel, and J.A. Todd. 2007. Resistance of an invasive gastropod to an indigenous trematode parasite in Lake Malawi. Biological Invasions (Published online ahead of print: 24 March 2007). Abstract download full text
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Genner, M.J., P. Nichols, G.R. Carvalho, R.L. Robinson, P.W. Shaw, A. Smith, and G.F. Turner. 2007. Evolution of a cichlid fish in a Lake Malawi satellite lake. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B - Biological Sciences 274: 2249-2257. Abstract download full text download full text [Rhamphochromis in Lake Chilingali, 11.5 km from L. Malawi]
Genner, M.J., P. Nichols, G.R. Carvalho, R.L. Robinson, P.W. Shaw, and G.F. Turner. 2007. Reproductive isolation among deep-water cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi differing in monochromatic male breeding dress. Molecular Ecology 16: 651-662. Abstract download full text [In Diplotaxodon spp.]
Genner, M.J., P. Nichols, P.W. Shaw, G.R. Carvalho, R.L. Robinson, and G.F. Turner. 2008. Genetic homogeneity among breeding grounds and nursery areas of an exploited Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Freshwater Biology 53 (9): 1823-1831. Abstract doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2008.02004.x [The fish is Rhamphochromis longiceps]
Genner, M.J., P. Nichols, P.W. Shaw, G.R. Carvalho, R.L. Robinson, and G.F. Turner. 2009. Population structure on breeding grounds of Lake Malawi's 'twilight zone' cichlid fishes. Journal of Biogeography 37 (2): 258-269. Abstract doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02196.x [Diplotaxodon and Pallidochromis]
Genner, M.J., O. Seehausen, D.F.R. Cleary, M.E. Knight, E. Michel, and G.F. Turner. 2004. How does the taxonomic status of allopatric populations influence species richness within African cichlid fish assemblages? Journal of Biogeography 31: 93-102. download full text
Genner, M.J., O. Seehausen, D.H. Lunt, D.A. Joyce, P.W. Shaw, G.R. Carvalho, and G.F. Turner. 2007. Age of cichlids: New dates for ancient lake fish radiations. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1269-1282. Abstract download full text
Genner, M.J., M.I. Taylor, D.F.R. Cleary, S.J. Hawkins, M.E. Knight, and G.F. Turner. 2004. Beta diversity of rock-restricted cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi: Importance of environmental and spatial factors. Ecography 27 (5): 601-610. Abstract download full text
Genner, M.J., J.A. Todd, E. Michel, D. Erpenbeck, A. Jimoh, D.A. Joyce, A. Piechocki, and J.-P. Pointier. 2007. Amassing diversity in an ancient lake: evolution of a morphologically diverse parthenogenetic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi. Molecular Ecology 16: 517-530. Abstract download full text [The Melanoides polymorpha 'complex']
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Genner, M.J., and G.F. Turner. 2005. The mbuna cichlids of Lake Malawi: A model for rapid speciation and adaptive radiation. Fish and Fisheries 6 (1): 1-34. Abstract download full text
Genner, M.J., and G.F. Turner. 2012. Ancient hybridization and phenotypic novelty within Lake Malawi's cichlid fish radiation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 29 (1): 195-206. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr183 Abstract
Genner, M.J., and G.F. Turner. 2014. Timing of population expansions within the Lake Malawi haplochromine cichlid fish radiation. Hydrobiologia (epub 3-May-2014 ahead of print). [In Metriaclima (=Maylandia), Diplotaxodon, and Rhamphochromis spp.] doi:10.1007/s10750-014-1884-7 Abstract
Genner, M.J., G.F. Turner, S. Barker, and S.J. Hawkins. 1999. Niche segregation among Lake Malawi cichlid fishes? Evidence from stable isotope signatures. Ecology Letters 2 (3): 185-190. ["We propose that ecological segregation may not always be necessary to allow coexistence of Lake Malawi cichlids."] popup abstract download full text
Genner, M.J., G.F. Turner, and S.J. Hawkins. 1999a. Resource control by territorial male cichlid fish in Lake Malawi. Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 522-529. popup abstract download full text
Genner, M.J., G.F. Turner, and S.J. Hawkins. 1999b. Foraging of rocky habitat cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi: coexistence through niche partitioning? Oecologia 121 (2): 283-292. popup abstract download full text
Genner, M.J., K.A. Young, M. Haesler, and D.A. Joyce. 2008. Indirect mate choice, direct mate choice, and species recognition in a bower-building cichlid fish lek. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. Published online 10-Jun-2008. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01558.x Abstract download full text [In Hemitilapia oxyrhynchus; Protomelas similis also studied]
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Gerlai, R. 2007. Mate choice and hybridization in Lake Malawi cichlids, Sciaenochromis fryeri and Cynotilapia afra. Ethology 113: 673-685. Abstract
Gerrard, D.T., and A. Meyer. 2007. Positive selection and gene conversion in SPP120, a fertilization-related gene, during the East African cichlid fish radiation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 2286-2297. Abstract
Gersdorff Sorensen, L. von, A. Jorgensen, and T.K. Kristensen. 2005. Molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the gastropod genus Melanoides in Lake Malawi. African Zoology 40 (2): 179-191.
Glaubrecht, M. 1996. Evolutionsökologie und Systematik am Beispiel von Süss- und Brackwasserschnecken (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Cerithioidea): Ontogenese-Strategien, paläontologische Befunde und Historische Zoogeographie. [Evolutionary ecology and systematics using freshwater and brackish-water gastropods as a model (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Cerithioidea): ontogenetic strategies, palaeontological findings and historical zoogeography.] xvi + 524 pp., 77 text-figs, 5 tables, 25 b&w plates. ISBN 90-73348-52-8.
Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
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Goldschmidt, T. 1989. Anal spots (egg dummies) in relation to light conditions in haplochromine cichlids (Pisces) from Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Pages 139-142 in: Crapon de Caprona, M.-D., and B. Fritzch (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Biology, Ecology and Conservation of Cichlids, Bielefeld, West Germany, 24-27 February 1988. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 257. popup abstract
Goldschmidt, T. 1991. Egg mimics in haplochromine cichlids (Pisces, Perciformes) from Lake Victoria. Ethology 88 (3): 177-190. popup abstract [Highly relevant to Lake Malawi, where eggspot size also does not necessarily resemble size of the eggs]
Goldschmidt, T., and J. de Visser. 1990. On the possible role of egg mimics in speciation. Acta Biotheoretica 38: 125-134.
Goldschmidt, T., F. Witte, and J. de Visser. 1990. Ecological segregation in zooplanktivorous haplochromine species (Pisces: Cichlidae). Oikos 58: 343-355. [Lake Victoria]
Gondwe, M.J.G.S. 2004. Planktonic and benthic N2-fixation in the sandy shores of Lake Malawi, Central Africa. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Waterloo, Ontario, xv + 157 pp. popup abstract
Gondwe, M.J., S.J. Guildford, and R.E. Hecky. 2008. Planktonic nitrogen fixation in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Hydrobiologia 596 (1): 251-267 [Epub 20-Jul-2007 ahead of print]. doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9101-6 Abstract
Gondwe, M.J.S., S.J. Guildford, and R.E. Hecky. 2011a. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus loadings from tilapia fish cages in Lake Malawi and factors influencing their magnitude. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (Suppl. 1): 93-101. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.11.014 Abstract
Gondwe, M.J.S., S.J. Guildford, and R.E. Hecky. 2011b. Physical-chemical measurements in the water column along a transect through a tilapia cage fish farm in Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (Suppl. 1): 102-113. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.10.001 Abstract
Gonfiantini, R., G.M. Zuppi, D.H. Eccles, and W. Ferro. 1979. Isotope investigations of Lake Malawi. Pages 192-205 in: Isotope in lake studies. International Atomic Energy Agency Panel Proceedings Series STI/PUB/511. [Pagination also seen cited as 195-207]
Gonzalez-Voyer, A., S. Winberg, and N. Kolm. 2009. Social fishes and single mothers: brain evolution in African cichlids. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological sciences 276 (1654): 161-167. [Epub ahead of print 2008 Sep 16.] Abstract [In 39 species of L. Tanganyikan cichlid]
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Gorthner, A. 1994. Grenzen paläontologischer Systematik und Stratigraphie in lakustrischen Biotopen am Beispiel rezenter und fossiler Mollusken des Malawisees. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaeontologie Monatshefte 1994 (August) (8): 487-500.
Government of Malawi. 1997a. The Fisheries Conservation and Management Act. Government Printer, Zomba.
Government of Malawi. 1997b. Fisheries conservation and management regulations. Malawi Gazette, Supplement dated 23 June 2000 (published 14 July 2000).
Graf, D.L., and K.S. Cummings. 2011. Freshwater mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) richness and endemism in the ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar based on comprehensive museum sampling. Hydrobiologia 678 (1): 17-36. doi:10.1007/s10750-011-0810-5 Abstract
Grant, S.M., H.W. Dieckhoff, H.J. Mayland, and M.M. Meyer. 1987. Ecology of Aulonocara REGAN, 1922 in Lake Malawi. Pages 131-139 in: Klausewitz, W. (ed.). Contributions to the knowledge of the cichlid fishes of the genus Aulonocara of Lake Malawi (East-Africa). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 94. popup abstract download full text
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Gray, S.M., F.L. Hart, M.E.M. Tremblay, T.J. Lisney, and C.W. Hawryshyn. 2011. The effects of handling time, ambient light, and anaesthetic method, on the standardized measurement of fish colouration. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68: 330–342. doi:10.1139/F10-151 Abstract [Studied in Melanochromis auratus and Metriaclima (=Maylandia) zebra]
Gray, S.M., S. Sabbah, and C.W. Hawryshyn. 2011. Experimentally increased turbidity causes behavioural shifts in Lake Malawi cichlids. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 20: 529–536. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0633.2011.00501.x
Gray, W.N. 1980. Some unusual snails of Lake Malawi. Nyala 5 (2): 19-28. download full text
Greenwood, P.H. 1961. A revision of the genus Dinotopterus Blgr. (Pisces, Clariidae) with notes on the comparative anatomy of the suprabranchial organs in the Clariidae. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 7: 215-241. download full text [Dinotopterus atribranchus, D. jacksoni]
Greenwood, P.H. 1962. A revision of certain Barbus species (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from east, central, and south Africa. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 8: 153-208. download full text [Includes descriptions & drawings of several species found in Lake Malawi (Nyasa), and some remarks about differences in specimens of B. trimaculatus from the lake]
Greenwood, P.H. 1964. Explosive speciation in African lakes. Proceedings of the Royal Institute of Great Britain 40: 256-269.
Greenwood, P.H. 1966. The Fishes of Uganda. Second edition (revised). The Uganda Society, Kampala; [viii] + 131 pages.
Greenwood, P.H. 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria, east Africa: The biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, Supplement 6, 134 pp.
Greenwood, P.H. 1978. A review of the pharyngeal apophysis and its significance in the classification of African cichlid fishes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 33 (5): 297-323. popup abstract download full text [Contains significant information about Lake Malawi species.]
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Greenwood, P.H. 1979. Towards a phyletic classification of the 'genus' Haplochromis (Pisces, Cichlidae) and related taxa. Part I. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 35 (4): 265-322. download full text [This is the paper in which Greenwood restricted Haplochromis to five species of the Lakes Victoria-Edward-George-Kivu assemblage. This left more than 100 Lake Malawi species, previously assigned to Haplochromis, without a generic name. In Appendix I of this paper, therefore, Greenwood proposed using Cyrtocara as a temporary formal name for those Lake Malawi species. This name was so used until the revision by Eccles and Trewavas (1989) provided generic names for all of the former Lake Malawi Haplochromis species.]
Greenwood, P.H. 1981. Species-flocks and explosive speciation. Pages 61-74 in: Greenwood, P.H., and P.L. Forey (eds.). Chance, change and challenge — the evolving biosphere. Cambridge University Press and British Museum (Natural History), London.
Greenwood, P.H. 1983a. The Ophthalmotilapia assemblage of cichlid fishes reconsidered. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 44 (4): 249-290. popup abstract download full text [Although focused on L. Tanganyika, this paper includes multiple comparisons with Lethrinops (and illustrates the suspensorium and the lower jaw of L. lethrinus); a possible autapomorphy of Lethrinops, the palatopterygoid gap, is demonstrated, though a similar gap is apparently derived independently in the Ophthalmotilapia assemblage of L. Tanganyika. Comparisons of Tanganyika taxa with Petrotilapia, Labeotropheus, and Pseudotropheus are also made.]
Greenwood, P.H. 1983b. On Macropleurodus, Chilotilapia (Teleostei, Cichlidae), and the interrelationships of African cichlid species flocks. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 45 (4): 209-231. popup abstract download full text [Greenwood concluded, from their ocellar and non-ocellar anal fin markings, as did Oliver (1984) independently, that the haplochromines of Lake Malawi comprise more than one lineage and are not a monophyletic group.]
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Greenwood, P.H. 1984a. What is a species flock? Pp. 13-19 in Echelle, A.A., and I. Kornfield (eds.), Evolution of fish species flocks. University of Maine at Orono Press. popup abstract
Greenwood, P.H. 1984b. African cichlids and evolutionary theories. Pp. 141-154 in Echelle, A.A., and I. Kornfield (eds.), Evolution of fish species flocks. University of Maine at Orono Press. popup abstract

Greenwood, P.H. 1986. The pars jugularis and the intrarelationships of cichlid fishes (Labroidei, Teleostei). Journal of Natural History 20: 949-974. popup abstract
Greenwood, P.H. 1991. Speciation. Pp. 86-102 in Keenleyside, M.H.A. (ed.), Cichlid fishes. Behaviour, ecology and evolution. Chapman & Hall, London.
Greenwood, P.H. 1993. A review of the serranochromine cichlid fish genera Pharyngochromis, Sargochromis, Serranochromis and Chetia (Teleostei: Labroidei). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 59 (1): 33-44. popup abstract
Greenwood, P.H. 1994a. The species flock of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria - and those of other African Great Lakes. Pp. 347-354 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1. popup abstract
Greenwood, P.H. 1994b. The generic and infrageneric taxa described by Ethelwynn Trewavas. Environmental Biology of Fishes 41 (1-4): 55-61. First page
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Grove, A.T. 1996. African river discharges and lake levels in the twentieth century. Pages 95-102 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Guildford, S.J., H.A. Bootsma, E.J. Fee, R.E. Hecky, and G. Patterson. 2000. Phytoplankton nutrient status and mean water column irradiance in Lakes Malawi and Superior. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 3 (1): 35-46. Abstract
Guildford, S.J., H.A. Bootsma, W.D. Taylor, and R.E. Hecky. 2007. High variability of phytoplankton photosynthesis in response to environmental forcing in oligotrophic Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33 (1): 170-185. Abstract
Guildford, S.J., R.E. Hecky, W.D. Taylor, R. Mugidde, and H.A. Bootsma. 2003. Nutrient enrichment experiments in tropical Great Lakes Malawi/Nyasa and Victoria. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 89-106. Abstract
Guildford, S.J., and W.D. Taylor. 2011. Evidence supporting the importance of nutrient regeneration by nano- and micrograzers for phytoplankton photosynthesis in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (Suppl. 1): 54-60. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.12.010 Abstract
Guildford, S.J., W.D. Taylor, H.A. Bootsma, L.L. Hendzel, R.E. Hecky, and L. Barlow-Busch. 1999. Factors controlling pelagic algal abundance and composition in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Pages ?-? in: Bootsma, H.A., and R.E. Hecky (eds.). Water Quality Report, SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project.
Guildford, S.J., W.D. Taylor, H.A. Bootsma, L.L. Hendzel, R.E. Hecky, and L. Barlow-Busch. 1999. Factors controlling pelagic algal abundance and composition in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Pages ?-? in: Bootsma, H.A., and R.E. Hecky (eds). Water Quality Report, SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project.
Gullu, K., D. Guroy, I. Celik, and A.A. Tekinay. 2008. Optimal dietary protein levels in juvenile electric blue cichlid (Sciaenochromis fryeri). Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh 60 (4): 261-267. Abstract download full text
Gunter, H.M., C. Clabaut, W. Salzburger, and A. Meyer. 2011. Identification and characterization of gene expression involved in the coloration of cichlid fish using microarray and qRT-PCR approaches. Journal of Molecular Evolution 72 (2): 127-137. [Studied in Pseudotropheus saulosi] doi:10.1007/s00239-011-9431-x Abstract
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Günther, A. 1864. Report on a collection of reptiles and fishes made by Dr. Kirk in the Zambesi and Nyassa regions. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864: 303-314. download full text [Four new haplochromine species, and other cichlids and noncichlids]
Günther, A. 1866. Catalogue of fishes in the British Museum. Volume 6: Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Salmonidae, Percopsidae, Galaxidae, Mormyridae, Gymnarchidae, Esocidae, Umbridae, Scombresocidae, Cyprinodontidae, in the collection of the British Museum. xv + 368 pages. [Petrocephalus catostoma]
Günther, A. 1868. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Volume 7: Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Heteropygii, Cyprinidae, Gonorhynchidae, Hyodontidae, Osteoglossidae, Clupeidae, Chirocentridae, Alepocephalidae, Notopteridae, Halosauridae, in the collection of the British Museum. [Engraulicypris sardella, Labeo mesops]
Günther, A. 1894. Second report on the reptiles, batrachians, and fishes transmitted by Mr. H. H. Johnston, C.B., from British Central Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893: 616-628. download full text [Published in April 1894 according to Eschmeyer (1990). Descriptions of two new mbuna (Cynotilapia afra [as Hemichromis afer] and Pseudotropheus williamsi [as Chromis williamsi]) and several other Malawi haplochromines, and of Bagrus meridionalis and Aplocheilichthys johnstoni]
Günther, A. 1896. Descriptions of two new species of fishes (Mastacembelus and Barbus). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 17: 397. [Aethiomastacembelus shiranus] download full text
Top   Haberyan, K.A. 1988. Phycology, sedimentology, and paleolimnology near Cape Maclear, southern Lake Malawi, Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, N.C., 246 pp. popup abstract
Haberyan, K.A. 1990. The misrepresentation of the planktonic diatom assemblage in traps and sediments: southern Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Paleolimnology 3: 35-44. Abstract
Haberyan, K.A., and O.K. Mhone. 1991. Algal communities near Cape Maclear, southern Lake Malawi, Africa. Hydrobiologia 215 (3): 175-188. Abstract
Haesler, M.P., and O. Seehausen. 2005. Inheritance of female mating preference in a sympatric sibling species pair of Lake Victoria cichlids: implications for speciation. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 272 (1560): 237-245. [The species pair are Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei] doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2946 Abstract download full text
Halat, K., and J.T. Lehman. 1996. A model for the anomalous distribution of Chaoborus in African Great Lakes. Hydrobiologia 330: 31-36. Abstract
Hale, E.A. 1997. An investigation of the utility of feeding angles among Lake Malawi rock-dwelling cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae). 62 pp. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. popup abstract
Hale, E.A., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and M.D. Mahaffy. 1998. Exceptions to color being a sexually dimorphic character in Melanochromis auratus (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 9: 263-266. popup abstract
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Halfman, J.D. 1993. Water column characteristics from modern CTD data, Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19 (3): 512-520. Abstract
Halfman, J.D. 1996. CTD-transmissometer profiles from Lakes Malawi and Turkana. Pages 169-182 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Halfman, J.D., and C.A. Scholz. 1993. Suspended sediments in Lake Malawi, Africa: A reconnaissance study. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19 (3): 499-511. Abstract
Hamblin, P.F., H.A. Bootsma, and R.E. Hecky. 1999. Modeling nutrient upwelling in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Pp. 123-141 in: Bootsma, H.A., and R.A. Hecky (eds.), Water quality report. Lake Malawi Biodiversity Conservation Project. Southern African Development Community (SADC), Global Environmental Facility (GEF). download full text [Compare Hamblin, Bootsma, and Hecky (2003b)]
Hamblin, P.F., H.A. Bootsma, and R.E. Hecky. 2003a. Surface meteorological observations over Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 19-33. Abstract
Hamblin, P.F., H.A. Bootsma, and R.E. Hecky. 2003b. Modeling nutrient upwelling in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 34-47. Abstract [Compare Hamblin, Bootsma, and Hecky (1999)]
Hamblin, P., P. Verburg, P. Roebber, H. Bootsma, and R. Hecky. (In press). Observations and preliminary modelling of over-lake meteorology on large African lakes. Proceedings of the 2nd IDEAL Conference, Malawi, January 2000.
Hanssens, M. 2004. The deep-water Placidochromis species. Pp. 104-197 in: Snoeks, J. (ed.). The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: Identification, distribution and taxonomy. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas; 360 pp. [Includes description of 35 new species assigned to this genus]
Happold, D. 2011. African naturalist - the life and times of Rodney Carrington Wood 1889-1962. Book Guild, Brighton, U.K., xx + 290 pp. ISBN 9781846245558. Publisher's blurb & ordering information [Stigmatochromis woodi and Rhamphochromis woodi were named for him]
Hara, M. 1989. The role of marketing in the Malawi fish industry: a study of Nkhota Kota District and its hinterland. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Humberside College of Higher Education, 104 pp.
Hara, M. 2000. Fisheries co-management; what and whose agenda. First WARFSA/ WaterNet Symposium: Sustainable use of water resources. Maputo, Mozambique, 1-2 November 2000. [WARFSA: Water Research Fund for Southern Africa] download full text
Hara, M.M. 2001. Could co-management provide a solution to the problems of artisanal fisheries management on the south-east arm of Lake Malawi? xviii + 414 pp. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
Hara, M. 2006. Restoring the chambo in southern Malawi: learning from the past or re-inventing the wheel? Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 9 (4): 419-432. doi:10.1080/14634980601013335 Abstract download full text
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Haraldsdottir, G. 2002. Cooperation and conflicting interests: An ethnography of fishing and fish trading on the shores of Lake Malawi (Malawi). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa. popup abstract
Harding, J.P. 1950. On some species of Lernaea (Crustacea, Copepoda: Parasites of fresh-water fish). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 1 (1): 1-27. [Includes descriptions of six new species from L. Nyasa (Malawi) and notes on a seventh. Many drawings are included.] download full text
Hart, P.J.B., and T.J. Pitcher (eds.). 1995. The impact of species changes in African lakes. Chapman & Hall, London and New York; Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Fish & fisheries series, Vol. 18. 601 pp. ISBN: 0-412-55050-4. Publisher's blurb & ordering information
Hart, R.C., K. Irvine, and R. Waya. 1995. Experimental studies on food dependency of development times and reproductive effort (fecundity and egg size) of Tropodiaptomus cunningtoni in relation to its natural distribution in Lake Malawi. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 133 (1): 23-47.
Harvey, S.C., R. Campos-Ramos, D.D. Kennedy, M.T. Ezaz, N.R. Bromage, D.K. Griffin, and D.J. Penman. 2002. Karyotype evolution in Tilapia: Mitotic and meiotic chromosome analysis of Oreochromis karongae and O. niloticus x O. karongae hybrids. Genetica 115 (2): 169-177. popup abstract
Hatlebakk, M. 2012. Fishery as a livelihood strategy in Malawi. Analyzing a small LSMS sub-sample. Journal of International Development 24 (1): 77–87. doi:10.1002/jid.1703 Abstract
Hecky, R.E. 1984. African lakes and their trophic efficiencies: a temporal perspective. Pp. 405-448 in: Meyers, D.G., and J.R. Strickler (eds.). Trophic interactions within aquatic ecosystems. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.
Hecky, R.E. 2000. A biogeochemical comparison of Lakes Superior and Malawi and the limnological consequences of an endless summer. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 3 (1): 23-34. Abstract
Hecky, R.E. 2003. What does the future hold for the Great Lakes of Africa? African Journal of Aquatic Science 28 (1): iii-vi.
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Hecky, R.E., H.A. Bootsma, and M.L. Kingdon. 2003. Impact of land use on sediment and nutrient yields to Lake Malawi/Nyasa (Africa). Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 139-158. Abstract
Hecky, R.E., H.A. Bootsma, R. Mugidde, and F.W.B. Bugenyi. 1996. Phosphorus pumps, nitrogen sinks and silicon drains: Plumbing nutrients in the African Great Lakes. Pages 205-224 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Hecky, R.E., and F.W.B. Bugenyi. 1992. Hydrology and chemistry of the African Great Lakes and water quality issues: Problems and solutions. Mitteilungen der Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie 23: 45-54. [Usual abbreviation of journal: Mitt. Internat. Verein. Limnol.]
Hecky, R.E., M. Kingdon, H.A. Bootsma, J. Mwita, and B. Mwichande. 1999. Riverine contribution of sediments and nutrients to Lake Malawi/Nyasa: Land use eutrophication and biodiversity. Pp. 92-95 in Ribbink, A.J. and A.C. Ribbink (eds), SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Biodiversity Conservation Project, Extended Abstracts: I. Senga Bay Conference, II. Ncheni Project Workshop, SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project, Senga Bay, Malawi.
Hecky, R.E., and H.J. Kling. 1987. Phytoplankton ecology of the Great Lakes in the rift valleys of Central Africa. Archiv für Hydrobiologie Beih. 25: 197-228.
Hecky, R.E., H.J. Kling, T.C. Johnson, H.A. Bootsma, and P. Wilkinson. 1999. Algal and sedimentary evidence for recent changes in the water quality and limnology of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa. Pages 191-214 in: Water Quality Report, Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Biodiversity Conservation Project. SADC/GEF.
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Heg, D., Z. Bachar, L. Brouwer, and M. Taborsky. 2004. Predation risk is an ecological constraint for helper dispersal in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 271 (1555): 2367-2374. [The cichlid is Neolamprologus pulcher of Lake Tanganyika] doi:10.1098/rsbl.2004.0232 Abstract download full text
Heg, D., N. Bender, and Hamilton I. 2004. Strategic growth decisions in helper cichlids. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 271 Suppl 6: S505-S508. [The cichlid is again Neolamprologus pulcher] Abstract
Hendrix, S.H. 2001. Cichlidogyrus from three species of Petrotilapia in Lake Malawi, Africa. Presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Monogenea, Brisbane, Australia, July, 2001. [A monogenean platyhelminth or flatworm]
Hendrix, S.H. 2003. Cichlidogyrus and other Monogenea from fishes in Lake Malawi, Africa. Presented at the Spring Meeting of the Helminthological Society of Washington, Gettysburg College, March 29, 2003.
Henning, F., H.J. Lee, P. Franchini, and A. Meyer. 2014. Genetic mapping of horizontal stripes in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes: benefits and pitfalls of using RAD markers for dense linkage mapping. Molecular Ecology (epub 19 Aug 2014 ahead of print). doi:10.1111/mec.12860 Abstract
Henning, F., and A. Meyer. 2012. Eggspot number and sexual selection in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni. PLoS ONE 7 (8): e43695. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043695 Abstract download full text
Herler, J., M. Kerschbaumer, P. Mitteroecker, L. Postl, and C. Sturmbauer. 2010. Sexual dimorphism and population divergence in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish genus Tropheus. Frontiers in Zoology 7: 4. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-7-4 Abstract download full text
Hert, E. 1989. The function of egg-spots in an African mouth-brooding cichlid fish. Animal Behaviour 37: 726-732.
Hert, E. 1990. Factors in habitat partitioning in Pseudotropheus aurora (Pisces: Cichlidae), an introduced species to a species-rich community in Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Fish Biology 36: 853-865. popup abstract
Hert, E. 1991. Female choice based on egg-spots in Pseudotropheus aurora Burgess 1976, a rock-dwelling cichlid of Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Fish Biology 38: 951-953. popup abstract
Hert, E. 1992. Homing and home-site fidelity in rock-dwelling cichlids (Pisces: Teleostei) of Lake Malawi, Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 33: 229-237. popup abstract
Hert, E. 1993. Time sharing, a strategy of habitat utilization in Melanochromis auratus, a rock dwelling cichlid of Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 4 (1): 61-64.
Hert, E. 1995. The impact of intralacustrine introductions with regard to space utilization and competition for territories to a cichlid fish community in Lake Malawi, Africa. Ecological Research 10: 117-124. popup abstract
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Hey, J., Y.-J. Won, A. Sivasundar, R. Nielsen, and J.A. Markert. 2004. Using nuclear haplotypes with microsatellites to study gene flow between recently separated Cichlid species. Molecular Ecology 13 (4): 909-919. popup abstract
Higashi, M., G. Takimoto, and N. Yamamura. 1999. Sympatric speciation by sexual selection. Nature 402: 523-526. Abstract
Higgins, S.N., R.E. Hecky, and W.D. Taylor. 2001. Epilithic nitrogen fixation in the rocky littoral zones of Lake Malawi, Africa. Limnology and Oceanography 46 (4): 976-982. popup abstract download full text
Higgins, S.N., H.J. Kling, R.E. Hecky, W.D. Taylor, and H.A. Bootsma. 2003. The community composition, distribution, and nutrient status of epilithic periphyton at five rocky littoral zone sites in Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 181-189. Abstract
Hilgendorf, F.M. 1905. Fische von Deutsch und Englisch Ost-Africa. Zoologischer Jahrbuch, Systematik (Jena) 405-420. [Leptoglanis (now Zaireichthys) rotundiceps]
Hoerner, M.E. 2011. Testing for differences in rates of speciation, extinction, and morphological evolution in four tribes of cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Evolution 65 (12): 3398–3412. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01390.x Abstract
Hofmann, C.M., K.E. O'Quin, N.J. Marshall, and K.L. Carleton. 2009. The relationship between lens transmission and opsin gene expression in cichlids from Lake Malawi. Vision Research 50 (3, 8-Feb-2010): 357-363. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2009.12.004 Abstract
Hofmann, C.M., K.E. O'Quin, N.J. Marshall, T.W. Cronin, O. Seehausen, and K.L. Carleton. 2009. The eyes have it: regulatory and structural changes both underlie cichlid visual pigment diversity. PLoS Biology 2009 Dec; 7 (12): e1000266. Epub 2009 Dec 22. Synopsis by R. Meadows download full text
Hofmann, C.M., K.E. O'Quin, A.R. Smith, and K.L. Carleton. 2010. Plasticity of opsin gene expression in cichlids from Lake Malawi. Molecular Ecology 30 Mar 2010 (epub ahead of print). Abstract
Hohenlohe, P.A., and S.J. Arnold. 2010. Dimensionality of mate choice, sexual isolation, and speciation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 107 (38): 16583-16588. doi:10.1073/pnas.1003537107 Abstract [In nine adaptive radiations including Pseudotropheus]
Holzberg, S. 1978. A field and laboratory study of the behaviour and ecology of Pseudotropheus zebra (Boulenger), an endemic cichlid of Lake Malawi (Pisces: Cichlidae). Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 16: 171-187. popup abstract
Hopmans, E.C., J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, and S. Schouten. 2010. Organic geochemical records of environmental variability in Lake Malawi during the last 700 years, part I: The TEX86 temperature record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology [available online ahead of print]. doi:doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.09.006 Abstract
Horemans, B. 1990. Preparation of a baseline survey of the artisanal fisheries on Lake Malawi (draft). Chambo Fisheries Research Project. FI: DP/MLW:86/013, Field Document, 2: 1-7 + annexes.
Howes, G.J. 1984. A review of the anatomy, taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of the African neoboline cyprinid fishes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 47: 151-185. [Restricts the genus Engraulicypris to only E. sardella of Lake Malawi]Abstract
Howes, G.J. 1995. Peter Humphry Greenwood 1927-1995. Copeia 1995 (3): 759-769.
Hoza, R.B. 1991. A report on the preliminary survey of the socioeconomic aspect of the Tanzanian Lake Nyasa fisheries activities. Dar es Salaam: Fisheries division; 24 pp.
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Hu, Y., and R.C. Albertson. 2014. Hedgehog signaling mediates adaptive variation in a dynamic functional system in the cichlid feeding apparatus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) (epub 27 May 2014 ahead of print). doi:10.1073/pnas.1323154111 Abstract
Hu, Y., K.J. Parsons, and R.C. Albertson. 2014. Evolvability of the cichlid jaw: new tools provide insights into the genetic basis of phenotypic integration. Evolutionary Biology 41 (1): 145-153. doi:10.1007/s11692-013-9254-3 Abstract
Hubbs, C.L. 1964. History of ichthyology in the United States after 1850. Copeia 1964 (1): 42-60.
Huber, R., M.J. van Staaden, L.S. Kaufman, and K.F. Liem. 1997. Microhabitat use, trophic patterns, and the evolution of brain structure in African cichlids. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 50 (3): 167-182. popup abstract
Hulsey, C.D. 2006. Function of a key morphological innovation: fusion of the cichlid pharyngeal jaw. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B - Biological Sciences 273 (1587): 669-675. Abstract [Like the following paper, focused on neotropical heroine cichlids but clearly relevant to study of African rift lake cichlids as well]
Hulsey, C.D., F.J. Garcia de Leon, and R. Rodiles-Hernandez. 2006. Micro- and macroevolutionary decoupling of cichlid jaws: A test of Liem's key innovation hypothesis. Evolution 60 (10): 2096-2109. Abstract [Although focused on neotropical heroine cichlids, this research has obvious relation to African species flocks]
Hulsey, C.D., M.C. Mims, M.F. Parnell, and J.T. Streelman. 2010. Comparative rates of lower jaw diversification in cichlid adaptive radiations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 1456-1467. Available online 7-May-2010 (Epub ahead of print). doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02004.x Abstract [In cichlids from Lake Malawi and in South American heroines]
Hulsey, C.C., M.C. Mims, and J.T. Streelman. 2007. Do constructional constraints influence cichlid craniofacial diversification? Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B), 274 (1620): 1867-1875. [In 41 species from Lake Malawi] doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0444 Abstract download full text
Hulsey, C.C., R.J. Roberts, A.S.P. Lin, R. Guldberg, and J.T. Streelman. 2008. Convergence in a mechanically complex phenotype: Detecting structural adaptations for crushing in cichlid fish. Evolution 62 (7): 1587-1599. Abstract [Although the reported work was done on neotropical cichlids, it is highly relevant to studies of Rift Lake cichlids]
Hulsey, C.D., R.J. Roberts, Y.-H.E. Loh, M.F. Rupp, and J.T. Streelman. 2013. Lake Malawi cichlid evolution along a benthic/limnetic axis. Ecology and Evolution 3 (7): 2262-2272. doi:10.1002/ece3.633 Abstract download full text
Husemann, M., M. Tobler, C. McCauley, B. Ding, and P.D. Danley. Evolution of body shape in differently coloured sympatric congeners and allopatric populations of Lake Malawi's rock-dwelling cichlids. Journal of Evolutionary Biology [Epub 12 Mar 2014 ahead of print] doi:10.1111/jeb.12353 Abstract [In Maylandia zebra and relatives]
Hutchinson, G.E., and H. Löffler. 1956. The thermal classification of lakes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 42 (2): 84-86. download full text
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ICLARM (International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, now called WorldFish Center). [No date.] ICLARM - The World Fish Center in Malawi. [Color brochure, 12 pages.] download full text
[ICLARM (International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, now called WorldFish Center) and GTZ (Deutsche Gesellshaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit)]. 1991. The context of small-scale integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in Africa: A case study of Malawi. ICLARM Study Review 18, xxvi + 302 pages. ISBN 971-1022-65-6. download full text
IDEAL (International Decade for the East African Lakes). Various dates 1992+. IDEAL Bulletin archive. [Links to download full text of all published IDEAL bulletins in PDF format, unfortunately as nonsearchable page images. Many articles concern the limnology, hydrology, and biology of Lake Malawi/Niassa.]
ILEC. 2005 . Managing lakes and their basins for sustainable use: A report for lake basin managers and stakeholders. International Lake Environment Committee Foundation, Kusatsu, Japan. xiv + 146 + [ii] pages. download full text [Includes numerous references to Lake Malawi. A "companion CD-ROM" summarizing "lessons learned" for 28 lake basins includes a summary by Bootsma & Jorgensen on L. Malawi]
Iles, T.D. [1960a]. A group of zooplankton feeders of the genus Haplochromis (Cichlidae) in Lake Nyasa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (13) 2, 1959: 257-280. [This paper was published in the May 1959 issue, but separates of it include the printed notation "Published 15/3/1960."]
Iles, T.D. 1960b. Engraulicypris sardella. Joint Fisheries Research Organisation, Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Annual Report No. 9 (1959): 8-9, 17-24. Government Printer, Lusaka.
Iles, T.D. 1960c. An opinion as to the advisability of introducing a non- indigenous zooplankton feeding fish in Lake Nyasa. CSA/CCTA 4th Hydrobiology and Inland Fisheries Symposium, Lusaka.
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Iles, T.D. 1971. Ecological aspects of growth in African cichlid fishes. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 33: 362-384.
Ilves, K.L., and H. López-Fernández. 2014. A targeted next-generation sequencing toolkit for exon-based cichlid phylogenomics. Molecular Ecology Resources [in press]. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.12222 Abstract
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1999. International code of zoological nomenclature. 4th edition. XXX+306 pp. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London. Online version Ordering information
Irvine, K. 1995a. Standing biomasses, production, spatial and temporal distributions of the crustacean zooplankton. Pp. 85-108 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/ Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Irvine, K. 1995b. Ecology of the Lakefly, Chaoborus edulis. Pages 109-140 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Irvine, K. 1997. Food selectivity and diel vertical distribution of Chaoborus edulis (Diptera, Chaoboridae) in Lake Malawi. Freshwater Biology 37 (3): 605-620. [This organism is the famous Nkhungu or lakefly, seen in smokelike clouds above the lake, and eagerly eaten by fish and man.]
Irvine, K. 2000a. Macrodistribution, swarming behaviour and production estimates of the lakefly Chaoborus edulis (Diptera: Chaoboridae) in Lake Malawi. Pp. 431-448 in: Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe, eds. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, volume 31. Academic Press, London. popup abstract
Irvine, K. (coordinator). 2003. The trophic ecology of the demersal fish community of lake Malawi/Niassa, Central Africa. Final report to the European Union, covering the period from 1st March 1998 to 28th February 2002. INCO-DC: International Cooperation with Developing Countries, 2003. Contract number: ERBIC18CT970195. download full text
Top Irvine, K., and K. Martens. 2001. The trophic ecology of the demersal fish communities of Lake Malawi/Niassa, central Africa. Bulletin for the International Decade for the East African Lakes, Spring 2001, pages 5 and 10. download full text
Irvine, K., G. Patterson, E.H. Allison, A.B. Thompson, and A. Menz. 2001. The pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi, Africa: Trophic structure and current threats. Pages 3-33 in: Munawar, M., and R.E. Hecky (editors). The great lakes of the world (GLOW): Food-web, Health & Integrity. Ecovision World Monograph Series, Ottawa. ISBN 9057-820811. Publisher's blurb
Irvine, K., K. Martens, S.A. Mapila, J. Snoeks, G. Carvalho, E. Allison, G. Turner, A. Aggrey, and P.O.J. Bwathondi. 2002. The trophic ecology of the demersal fish community of Lake Malawi/Niassa, Central Africa. INCO-DC (International Cooperation with Developing Countries), Final report to the European Commission, Contract No. ERBIC18CT970195.
Irvine, K., and R. Waya. 1993. Predatory behaviour of the cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops aequatorialis aequatorialis in Lake Malawi, a deep tropical lake. Verhandlungen der Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 25 (2): 877-881.
Irvine, K., and R. Waya. 1995. The zooplankton: General sampling methods and estimation of biomass and development rates. Pp. 69-83 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/ Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Irvine, K., and R. Waya. 1999. Spatial and temporal patterns of zooplankton standing biomass and production in Lake Malawi. Hydrobiologia (The Hague) 407: 191-205. Abstract
Irvine, K., R. Waya, and R.C. Hart. 1995. Additional studies into the ecology of Tropodiaptomus cunningtoni. Pp. 141-158 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
IUCN/WWF Project. 1983. Malawi, conservation of threatened island community in the Lake Malawi National Park. [International Union for the Conservation of Nature/World Wildife Fund]
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Jackson, F., J.F. Doherty, and R.H. Behrens. 2003. Schistosomiasis prophylaxis in vivo using N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97 (4): 449-450. popup abstract
Jackson, P.B.N. 1955. A new fish of the genus Clarias Gronov. from Lake Nyasa, with notes on the distribution of the Clariidae and other catfishes in the lake. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 681-684. [Bathyclarias foveolatus]
Jackson, P.B.N. 1959. Revision of the clariid catfishes of Nyasaland, with a description of a new genus and seven new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 109-128. [Bathyclarias; B. euryodon, B. filicibarbis, B. gigas, B. ilesi, B. loweae, B. rotundifrons, B. worthingtoni]
Jackson, P.B.N. 1961. Check-list of the fishes of Nyasaland. Occasional Papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia 3 (25B): 535-621. [Contains nuggets of useful information including ecological notes and native names of many species. There is a miserable key to the fishes, which is full of significant typographical errors.]
Jackson, P.B.N. 1971. The African Great Lakes fisheries: Past, present and future. African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries 1 (1): 35-49. popup abstract
Jackson, P.B.N. 2001. Freshwater fishery research organisations in central and eastern Africa. A personal recollection. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 55 (1): i-xiv, 1-81. popup abstract
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Jackson, P.B.N., T.D. Iles, D. Harding, and G. Fryer. 1963. Report on the survey of northern Lake Nyasa 1954-55 by the Joint Fisheries Research Organization. xii+171 pp., plus tables, figures, maps, charts, plates. Government Printer, Zomba, Nyasaland. download contents « (230 Kb, unlinked Table of Contents and front matter only); see also: download full text « 11 Mb (Complete book including bookmarks; searchable, Web-optimized) [Although now chiefly of historic interest, this major early report contains a large amount of information not available elsewhere and is well illustrated. Sections treat hydrology of the lake and inflowing rivers; invertebrates, especially Crustacea; a checklist of Nyasaland fishes (somewhat similar to Jackson, 1961); biology of utaka; and fisheries of the northern lake. The scanned complete copy of this rare document is extensively bookmarked to facilitate navigation.]
Jahn, R. 1996. The historical East African freshwater algae collection at the Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (B). Willdenowia 26: 333-340. (ISSN 0511-9618) download full text [Includes short bibliography of East African algae and phytoplankton]
Jambo, C., and T. Hecht. 2001. Effects of overfishing on reproductive potential of major cichlid fish species in southern Lake Malombe (Malawi): Need for "closed area" strategy as a complementary management option? Pp. 105-113 in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (Eds). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001, Capital Hotel, Lilongwe. National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP), Monkey Bay. 272 pp. popup abstract
Jamu, D., N.L. Andrew, H.A. Bootsma, and R.E. Hecky. 2011. Reconciling livelihoods and aquatic ecosystem resilience in the lakes of Malawi. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (Suppl. 1): 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.12.013
Jamu, D., M. Banda, F. Njaya, & R.E. Hecky. 2011. Challenges to sustainable management of the lakes of Malawi. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (Suppl. 1): 3-14. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.11.017 Abstract
Janicki, A., and J. DeCosta. 1979. The effect of trophic status on daily P/B of Bosmina longirostris. Oikos 33: 64-68.
Jelinek, T., H.D. Nothdurft, and T. Loscher. 1996. Schistosomiasis in travelers and expatriates. Journal of Travel Medicine 3 (3): 160-164. Abstract
Jennings, R. 1993. Likoma/Chizimulu artisanal fisheries development project: Final report. Internal report, Overseas Development Administration, London.
JFRO, see Joint Fisheries Research Organisation
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Johnson, D.S. 1974a. New cichlids from Lake Malawi including descriptions of two new species. Today's Aquarist 1 (1): 12, 14-17. [Labidochromis joanjohnsonae (=Melanochromis joanjohnsonae), L. freibergi] download full text [Caution: 7.1 Mb file!]
Johnson, D.S. 1974b. Three new cichlids from Lake Malawi. Today's Aquarist 1 (3): 38-42. [Pseudotropheus modestus, P. socolofi, & Trematocranus (now Aulonocara) jacobfreibergi] download full text « 3 pages only; missing 2 pages, 1 of which is probably photos and 1 that may be advertisement(s)
Johnson, D.S. 1975. More new Malawi cichlids. Today's Aquarist 2 (1): 15-26. [Microchromis new genus (= Cynotilapia); M. zebroides (=C. zebroides); Melanochromis chipokae; M. interruptus; M. loriae] download full text
Johnson, D.S. 1976. Two new cichlids of the Mbuna group from Malawi with a discussion of several bicuspid-toothed Labidochromis sp. [sic] Today's Aquarist 2 (3): 17-20, 22-24. [Pseudotropheus purpuratus and Melanochromis mellitus] download full text
Johnson, D.S. 1978. Mbuna: the colorful rock-dwelling Cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi. Pisces Publishing Corp., Norwalk, Connecticut; 84 pp. ISBN 0914858017. [not seen] Library of Congress record
Johnson, D.S. 1986[?]. Lake Malawi's monster Melanochromis. Melanochromis robustus sp. n. Today's Aquarist [new series] 1 (1): [third page]. download full text [Newsletter format. Issue is apparently not paginated, judging from my copy which was scanned and e-mailed but seems to show entire page. Issue consists of two 8½ × 11 inch sheets printed front and back from typewriter output. This article entirely on front of second sheet. Publication is headed simply "TODAY'S AQUARIST Vol. 1 No. 1 ISSN 0147-118X" on first page (with no issue date), but is called "TODAY'S AQUARIST News letter" on the masthead on the back page. This serial is not present in the US Library of Congress online catalog under either the title or the ISSN. Year of issue is uncertain. The last line of the (unillustrated) species description concludes "DSJ Dec. 1985." However, the available copy was clearly postmarked Jan 13, 1986, and was hand-addressed to Lee Finley who is listed on the publication's Board of Advisors. This postmark provides external evidence and may be the earliest verifiable issue date. -MKOliver]
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Johnson, T.C. 1996. Sedimentary processes and signals of past climatic change in the large lakes of the East African rift valley. Pages 367-412 in: Johnson, T., and E. Odada (eds.). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African lakes. IDEAL (International Decade of East African Lakes). Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Toronto.
Johnson, T.C., S.L. Barry, Y. Chan, and P. Wilkinson. 2001. Decadal record of climate variability spanning the past 700 years in the Southern Tropics of East Africa. Geology 29 (1): 83-86. popup abstract
Johnson, T.C., E.T. Brown, and J. McManus. 2004. Diatom productivity in northern Lake Malawi during the past 25,000 years: Implications for the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone at millennial and shorter time scales. Pages 93-116 in: Battarbee, R., F. Gasse, and C.E. Stickley (eds.). Past climate variability through Europe and Africa. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. ISBN 1-4020-2120-8. Publisher's blurb
Johnson, T.C., E.T. Brown, J. McManus, S. Barry, P. Barker, and F. Gasse. 2002. A high-resolution paleoclimate record spanning the past 25,000 years in southern East Africa. Science 296: 113-114, 131-132. popup abstract download full text
Johnson, T.C., E.T. Brown, and J. Shih. 2010. Biogenic silica deposition in Lake Malawi, East Africa over the past 150,000 years. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology [Epub 2 Feb 2010 ahead of print]. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.024 Abstract
Johnson, T.C., and T.W. Davis. 1989. High resolution seismic profiles from Lake Malawi, Africa. Pages 383-392 in: Rosendahl, B.R., J.J.W. Rogers, and N.M. Rach (eds.). Rifting in Africa — Karroo to recent. Journal of African Earth Sciences 8 (2, 3, 4).
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Johnson, T.C., T.W. Davis, B.M. Halfman, and N.D. Vaughan. 1988. Sediment core descriptions: Malawi 86, Lake Malawi, East Africa. Project Probe Technical Report.
Johnson, T.C. and B.M. Halfman. 1988. Bathymetric map of Lake Malawi. Project PROBE, Duke University.
Johnson, T.C., and P. Ng'ang'a. 1990. Reflections on a rift lake. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 50. Pp. 113-135 in: B.J. Katz (ed.). Lacustrine basin exploration: Case studies and modern analogs. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds.). 1996. The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto, 664 pp.
Johnson, T.C., C.A. Scholz, M.R. Talbot, K. Kelts, R.D. Ricketts, G. Ngobi, K. Beuning, I. Ssemmanda, and J.W. McGill. 1996. Late Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria and rapid evolution of cichlid fishes. Science 273: 1091-1093. Abstract
Joint Fisheries Research Organisation. 1962. Annual report no. 10, 1960. iv + 67 pp. Government Printer, Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia. [Includes sections on Lake Tanganyika, L. Nyasa (Malawi), L. Mweru, and L. Kariba. L. Malawi fishes treated include Labeo mesops and Bagrus meridionalis] download full text (searchable 8.15 Mb file)
Joint Fisheries Research Organisation. 1963. [See Jackson, Iles, Harding, & Fryer (1963)]
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Jones, J.C., H.M. Gunter, and A. Meyer. 2008. Will he still look good with the lights on? Spectral tuning of visual pigments in fish. Journal of Biology 7: 26. Abstract download full text [A minireview of recent literature on opsin gene research, including Figure 2 showing spectral peak absorbance data during ontogeny for some species of the L. Malawi cichlid genera Metriaclima (=Maylandia), Labeotropheus, Dimidiochromis, and Tramitichromis]
Joo, D., Y.-S. Kwan, J. Song, C. Pinho, J. Hey, and Y.-J. Won. 2013. Identification of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi using computer vision. PLoS ONE 8 (10): e77686. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077686 Abstract download full text
Jordan, L.A., M.Y.L. Wong, and S.S. Balshine. 2009. The effects of familiarity and social hierarchy on group membership decisions in a social fish. Biology Letters [epub 9 Dec 2009 before print]. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0732 Abstract [In Neolamprologus pulcher of Lake Tanganyika]
Jordan, P. and G. Webbe. 1996. Schistosomiasis in travellers returning from sub-Saharan Africa. British Medical Journal 313 (16 November): 1260. [Cites references documenting that schistosomiasis infections from Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa) were reported as early as 1913, and notes that "in the early 1950s Likoma Island was the site of one of the earliest experiments at control with mass chemotherapy with nilodin and at control of the snails with copper sulphate." Cf. Stauffer et al. (1996)]
Jordan, R.C. 2001. Visual factors guiding mate choice in a group of Lake Malawi cichlids (East Africa). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. popup abstract
Jordan, R.C., D. Howe, K. Kellogg, F. Juanes, J. Stauffer, Jr., and E. Garcia-Vazquez. 2008. Small-scale morphological differentiation in a cichlid may provide clues about rapidly diversifying systems. African Journal of Ecology 46 (1): 107-109. [No abstract]
Jordan, R., K. Kellogg, D. Howe, F. Juanes, J. Stauffer, Jr., and E. Loew. 2006. Photopigment spectral absorbance of Lake Malawi cichlids. Journal of Fish Biology 68 (4): 1291-1299. Abstract
Jordan, R.C., K. Kellogg, F. Juanes, D. Howe, J. Stauffer, Jr., E. Loew, and G. Losey. 2004. Ultraviolet reflectivity in three species of Lake Malawi rock-dwelling cichlids. Journal of Fish Biology 65: 876-882. Abstract [The species studied are Maylandia zebra, M. benetos, and M. barlowi (all as Metriaclima)]
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Jordan, R.C., K. Kellogg, F. Juanes, and J. Stauffer. 2003. Evaluation of female mate choice cues in a group of Lake Malawi mbuna (Cichlidae). Copeia 2003 (1): 181-186. Abstract
Jordan, R., D. Mellor, L. Wilt, D. Gershenson, and D. Howe. 2010. Male interactions in a group of Malawi cichlids. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 22 (4): 359-364. doi:10.1080/03949370.2010.510041 Abstract
Jørgensen, A. 2001. Graphical presentation of the African tardigrade fauna using GIS with the description of Isohypsibius malawiensis sp n. (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae) from Lake Malawi. Zoologischer Anzeiger 240 (3-4): 441-449. popup abstract
Jørgensen, A., L.V.G. Jørgensen, T.K. Kristensen, H. Madsen, and J.R. Stothard. 2007. Molecular phylogenetic investigations of Bulinus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Lake Malawi with comments on the topological incongruence between DNA loci. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 577-585. Abstract
Jørgensen, A., T.K. Kristensen, and H. Madsen. 2008. A molecular phylogeny of apple snails (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) with an emphasis on African species. Zoologica Scripta 37 (3): 245-252. Abstract ["The very low genetic diversity of the endemic radiation of Lanistes in Lake Malawi suggests that the morphological divergence has happened much faster than the molecular divergence as is also evidenced from the cichlid radiations."]
Joyce, D.A., D.H. Lunt, R. Bills, G.F. Turner, C. Katongo, N. Duftner, C. Sturmbauer, and O. Seehausen. 2005. An extant cichlid fish radiation emerged in an extinct Pleistocene lake. Nature 435 (7038): 90-95. Abstract download full text [Although not directly related to Lake Malawi, this paper is highly relevant to questions of cichlid diversification. See commentary by Kocher (2005)]
Joyce, D.A., D.H. Lunt, M.J. Genner, G.F. Turner, R. Bills, and O. Seehausen. 2011. Repeated colonization and hybridization in Lake Malawi cichlids. Current Biology 21 (3): R108-R109. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.11.029 Abstract Interpretive news item Correction: Current Biology (2011); 21 (6): 526. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.02.044
Jubb, R.A. 1967. Freshwater fishes of southern Africa. A.A. Balkema, Cape Town; viii + 248 pp.
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Kachinjika, O., and G. Patterson. 1994. A guide to the phytoplankton of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Addendum to Scientific Report of UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.; Overseas Development Administration, London. Internal mimeographed report.
Kadongola, W.K. 1994. Otter signs on the islands of the Lake Malawi National Park. IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin (March) 9: 5. download full text
Kafumbata, D.R., A.J.D. Ambali, H.H. Kabwazi, W. Changadeya, M.C. Phiri, and M. Chimenya. 2001. Chasing the chambo in southern Lake Malawi: Does molecular genetics have a role to play in the management of the stocks? Malawi Journal of Science and Technology 6: 71-79. Abstract
Kalindekafe, L.S.N. 1991. Terrigenous and authigenic mineralisation in Lake Malawi sediments. M.Sc. thesis, Chancellor College, University of Malawi, 294 pp. [Discusses L. Malawi's phosphate-enriched sediments, including phosphatic sand crusts, muds, and nodules from Recent sediments of the lake. Phosphate minerals in the sediments include apatite, vivianite, and anapanite. Vivianite occurs under reducing environments in lake muds. These phosphates may have originated by "re-phosphatization of fish bones." Cormorant guano accumulations on some L. Malawi islands, including Boadzulu, are discussed.]
Kalindekafe, L.S.N. 1993. The mineralogy of Lake Malawi ferromanganese nodules. Journal of African Earth Sciences 17 (2): 183-192.
Kalindekafe, L.S.N., M.B. Dolozi, and R. Yuretich. 1996. Distribution and origin of clay minerals in the sediments of Lake Malawi. Pages 443-460 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Kamanga, B.C. 1974. The nature of fishing industry centred on Chizumulu Island. Dziko, 5. [Dziko the geographical magazine, published in Limbe, Malawi. Chancellor College Geographical Society; University of Malawi]
Kamanga, L.J., E. Kaunda, J.P. Mtimuni, A.O. Maluwa, and W.M. Mfitilodze. 2001. Effect of temperature on oocyte development of Oreochromis karongae (TREWAVAS). Pp. 233-241 in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (Eds). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001, Capital Hotel, Lilongwe. National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP), Monkey Bay. 272 pp. popup abstract [See also next item, with slightly different abstract]
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Kamanga, L.J., E. Kaunda, J.P. Mtimuni, A.O. Maluwa, and W.M. Mfitilodze. 2004. Effect of temperature on oocyte development of Oreochromis karongae (Trewavas, 1941). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20: 139-145. popup abstract [See also preceding item]
Kambewa, P., J. Nagoli, and S.M.C Hüsken. 2009. Vulnerability of female fish traders to HIV/AIDS along the fish market chain of the southeastern Arm of Lake Malawi. Analysis report. Regional Programme Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in Sustainable Solutions. The WorldFish Center. Project Report 1979. Abstract download full text
Kanthack, F.E. 1941. The fluctuations of Lake Nyasa. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 15 pp.
Kanyerere, G.Z. 1999a. Trawl selectivity and effect of clogging on selectivity in standard trawl surveys in Lake Malawi. Fisheries Bulletin No. 39. Fisheries Department, Lilongwe, Malawi.
Kanyerere, G.Z. 1999b. Demersal exploratory fishing and research survey in central and northern Lake Malawi 1998. Fisheries Bulletin 41, i + 25 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (687 Kb)
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Kanyerere, G.Z. 2001. Spatial and temporal distribution of some commercially important fish species in the southeast and southwest arms of Lake Malawi: A geostatistical analysis. Fisheries Bulletin 43, 30 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (943 Kb) [Species treated are Alticorpus mentale, Buccochromis lepturus, Copadichromis virginalis, Diplotaxodon "elongate," and Oreochromis spp.]
Kanyerere, G.Z., A.J. Booth, and O.L.F. Weyl. 2005. Management advice for the Diplotaxodon limnothrissa (Teleostei: Cichlidae) resource in the south-east arm of Lake Malawi, based on per-recruit analysis. African Journal of Aquatic Science 30 (2): 141-145. Abstract Email Dr. Weyl
Kanyerere, G.Z., W. Namoto, and O.C. Mponda. 2001. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Nkhata Bay, Lake Malawi, 1976-1999. Fisheries Bulletin 48, 16 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (578 Kb)
Kanyerere, G.Z., O.L.F. Weyl, and A.J. Booth. 2005. Growth, reproduction and population structure of Diplotaxodon limnothrissa in the southeast arm of Lake Malawi. African Journal of Aquatic Science 30 (1): 37-44. Abstract Email Dr. Weyl
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Kaplan, Z., and J.-J. Symoens. 2005. Taxonomy, distribution and nomenclature of three confused broad-leaved Potamogeton species occurring in Africa and on surrounding islands. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society [London] 148: 329-357. Abstract [Documents the occurrence of only P. schweinfurthii in Lake Malawi; the other species treated are P. nodusus and P. richardii]
Kapute, F., E. Kaunda, M. Banda, and S. Morioka. 2008. Maturity, age and growth of Oreochromis karongae (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Lakes Malawi and Malombe, Malawi. African Journal of Aquatic Science 33 (1): 69-76. Abstract
Kassam, D. 2004. Geometric morphometrics approach to the study of ecomorphological divergence among cichlid fishes from East African Great Lakes. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate School of Kuroshio Science, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan. popup abstract
Kassam, D.D., D.C. Adams, A.J.D. Ambali, and K. Yamaoka. 2003. Body shape variation in relation to resource partitioning within cichlid trophic guilds coexisting along the rocky shore of Lake Malawi. Animal Biology 53 (1): 59-70. popup abstract
Kassam, D.D., D.C. Adams, M. Hori, and K. Yamaoka. 2003. Morphometric analysis on ecomorphologically equivalent cichlid species from lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Journal of Zoology 260 (2): 153-157. Abstract [The cichlids are Petrotilapia (L. Malawi) and Petrochromis (L. Tanganyika)]
Kassam, D., D.C. Adams, and K. Yamaoka. 2004. Functional significance of variation in trophic morphology within feeding microhabitat-differentiated cichlid species in Lake Malawi. Animal Biology 54 (1): 77-90. popup abstract
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Kassam, D., S. Mizoiri, and K. Yamaoka. 2004. Interspecific variation of body shape and sexual dimorphism in three coexisting species of the genus Petrotilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Ichthyological Research 51: 195-201. popup abstract
Kassam, D.D., T. Sato, K. Yamaoka. 2002a. Landmark-based morphometric analysis of the body shape of two sympatric species, Ctenopharynx pictus and Otopharynx sp. "heterodon nankhumba" (Teleostei: Cichlidae), from Lake Malawi. Ichthyological Research 49 (4): 340-345. popup abstract
Kassam, D.D., T. Sato, K. Yamaoka. 2002b. Comparative morphometrics and associated growth trends of two benthophagous cichlid species from Lake Malawi (Pisces, Perciformes). Zoologischer Anzeiger 241 (4): 381-387. popup abstract
Kassam, D., S. Seki, M. Horic, and K. Yamaoka. 2006. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Apr 20); [Epub ahead of print] Abstract
Kassam, D.D., S. Seki, B. Rusuwa, A.J.D. Ambali, and K. Yamaoka. 2005. Genetic diversity within the genus Cynotilapia and its phylogenetic position among Lake Malawi's mbuna cichlids. African Journal of Biotechnology 4 (10): 1195-1202. ISSN 1684-5315. Abstract download full text
Kassam, D., S. Seki, and K. Yamaoka. 2007. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers reveal population structuring in Dimidiochromis kiwinge (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a commercially exploited species from Lake Malawi. African Journal of Aquatic Science 32 (1): 39-44. Abstract
Kassam, D., K. Yamaoka, B. Rusuwa, and M. Hori. 2007. The robustness of geometric morphometrics in testing the morphological equivalence hypothesis among cichlid species from East African Great Lakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 91: 1-9. Abstract
Kasulo, V. 2000. The impact of invasive species in African lakes. Pp. 183-207 in Perrings, C., M. Williamson, and S. Dalmazzone (eds), The economics of biological invasions. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (England).
Kasulo, V., and C. Perrings. 2005. Fishing down the value chain: Biodiversity and access regimes in freshwater fisheries – the case of Malawi. Ecological Economics 59 (2006): 106-114. download full text
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Katoh, R., H. Munehara, and M. Kohda. 2005. Alternative male mating tactics of the substrate brooding cichlid Telmatochromis temporalis in Lake Tanganyika. Zoological Science 22 (5): 555-561. Abstract
Katongo, C., S. Koblmüller, N. Duftner, L. Mumba, and C. Sturmbauer. 2007. Evolutionary history and biogeographic affinities of the serranochromine cichlids in Zambian rivers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45 (1): 326-338. Abstract
Katunzi, E.F.B., J. Zoutendijk, T. Goldschmidt, J.H. Wanink, and F. Witte. 2003. Lost zooplanktivorous cichlid from Lake Victoria reappears with a new trade. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 12 (4): 237-240. Abstract [The species is Haplochromis pyrrhocephalus]
Kaunda, E. 2000. Feeding ecology of Bathychlarias nyasensis (Siluroidea: Clariidae) from Lake Malawi. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Rhodes University, xvii+219 pp. popup abstract Abstract download full text
Kaunda, E., and T. Hecht. 1999. Natural diet of Dinotopterus nyassensis (Greenwood 1961) from Lake Malawi. Malawi Journal of Science and Technology 5: 33-39. Abstract
Kaunda, E., and T. Hecht. 2003. Life history traits of Bathyclarias nyasensis (Siluroidei) in Lake Malawi. African Zoology 38 (1): 45-55. popup abstract
Kaunda, E., Z. Magombo, D. Kahwa, A. Mailosi, and C.N. Lange. 2004. Aspatharia subreniformis. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org Downloaded on 23 August 2007. download full text [A species of bivalve mollusk endemic to Lake Malawi, not known to be threatened]
Kawai, K., N. Yoshikawa, and H. Imabayashi. 2001. Relationships between spot type on male anal fin of Malawian mouth-brooding cichlid fishes and mating behavior. Journal of the Faculty of Applied Biological Science Hiroshima University 40: 27-32. popup abstract [The cichlids considered are Labidochromis caeruleus, Melanochromis auratus, Pseudotropheus zebra, Aulonocara hansbaenschi, A. jacobfreibergi, Nimbochromis livingstonii, Fossorochromis rostratus, and Placidochromis electra.]
Kawamiya, N. 2003. A Japanese view on speciation: "Sumiwake" explosive speciation of the cichlids in Lake Victoria. Rivista di Biologia (Sep-Dec) 96 (3): 399-431. Abstract
Kawanabe, H., G.W. Coulter, and A.C. Roosevelt (eds.). 1999. Ancient lakes: Their cultural and biological diversity. Kenobi Productions, Ghent, Belgium. ix + 340 pp. ISBN 90-804341-2-4. Review by C. Goulden
Kawanabe, H., M. Hori, and M. Nagoshi (eds.). 1997. Fish communities in Lake Tanganyika. Kyoto University Press, Kyoto.
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Kawata, M. and J. Yoshimura. 2000. Speciation by sexual selection in hybridizing populations without viability selection. Evolutionary Ecology Research 2 (7): 897-909. popup abstract download full text
Keenleyside, M.H.A. (editor). 1991. Cichlid fishes. Behaviour, ecology and evolution. (Fish & Fisheries Series Volume 2.) Chapman & Hall, London; xxii + 378 pages. ISBN 0-412-32200-5. Publisher's blurb [Together with Coleman (2001), the basic reference for anyone desiring the most current available summary of the status of modern cichlid research.] Review by Axel Meyer
Keilhack, L. 1908. Bemerkungen zur Fischfauna des nördlichen Njassa-Gebietes: einige neue Arten aus den Gattungen Barbus und Synodontis und Beiträge zur Systematik der Gattung Clarias. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschende Freunde zu Berlin 164-169. download full text at Biodiversity Heritage Library [Barbus arcislongae, B. eurystomus, B. litamba, Synodontis njassae]
Keilhack, L. 1910. Njassa-Fische gesammelt von Professor Dr. Fülleborn. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5 (1): 91-115, Tables 1-2. [Herein Keilhack designated lectotypes for his 1908 taxa. According to Dr. Lothar Seegers (in litt. 12 March 2001), "Barbus eurystomus has to be considered a junior synonym of B. johnstonii Boulenger 1907 and this biological species therefore has to be named B. brevicauda." Dr. Seegers pointed out that Banister & Clarke (1980) overlooked Keilhack's 1910 paper, and so used the name B. eurystomus in error. Thanks to Dr. Seegers for this opinion.]
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Keller, I., C.E. Wagner, L. Greuter, S. Mwaiko, O.M. Selz, A. Sivasundar, S. Wittwer, and O. Seehausen. 2013. Population genomic signatures of divergent adaptation, gene flow and hybrid speciation in the rapid radiation of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes. Molecular Ecology 22 (11): 2848-2863. [In 5 species of Mbipia and Pundamilia] doi:10.1111/mec.12083 Abstract
Kellogg, K.A. 1997. Lake Malawi cichlid mating systems: Factors that influence mate selection. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. popup abstract
Kellogg, K.A., J.A. Markert, J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and T.D. Kocher. 1995. Microsatellite variation demonstrates multiple paternity in lekking cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi, Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) (1357) 260: 79-84. popup abstract download full text
Kellogg, K.A., J.A. Markert, J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and T.D. Kocher. 1998. Intraspecific brood mixing and reduced polyandry in a maternal mouth- brooding cichlid. Behavioral Ecology 9 (3): 309-312. popup abstract
Kellogg, K.A., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and K.R. McKaye. 2000. Characteristics that influence male reproductive success on a lek of Lethrinops c.f. [sic] parvidens (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 47: 164-170. popup abstract
Kerr-Cross, D. 1895. Crater-lakes north of Lake Nyasa. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 12 pp.
Kerschbaumer, M., and C. Sturmbauer. 2011. The utility of geometric morphometrics to elucidate pathways of cichlid fish evolution. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2011: 290245, 8 pp. doi:10.4061/2011/290245 Abstract download full text
Ketterson, E.D. 2007. Perspective. Molecular Ecology 16 (7): 1345-1347. [Discussion of the results of Aubin-Horth et al. (2007)] Abstract download full text
Kidd, C.H.R. 1983. A water resources evaluation of Lake Malawi and the Shire River. UNDP project report MLW/77/012. 135 pages. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), Lilongwe, Malawi.
Kidd, K.A., H.A. Bootsma, R.H. Hesslein, W.L. Lockhart, and R.E. Hecky. 2003. Mercury concentrations in the food web of Lake Malawi, East Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 258-266. Abstract
Kidd, K.A., H.A. Bootsma, R.H. Hesslein, D.C. Muir, and R.E. Hecky. 2001. Biomagnification of DDT through the benthic and pelagic food webs of Lake Malawi, East Africa: importance of trophic level and carbon source. Environmental Science and Technology 35 (1): 14-20. Abstract
Kidd, K.A., W.L. Lockhart, P. Wilkinson, and D.C.G. Muir. 1999. Metals, pesticides and other persistent contaminants in water, sediments and biota from Lake Malawi. Pp. 243-276 in: Bootsma, H.A., and R.E. Hecky (eds.). Water quality report, Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project. SADC/GEF.
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Kidd, M.R. 2006. Patterns and process during the diversification of the cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi, Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Hampshire, 178 pp.
Kidd, M.R., P.D. Danley, and T.D. Kocher. 2006. A direct assay of female choice in cichlid fishes: All the eggs in one basket. Journal of Fish Biology 68 (2): 373-384. Abstract
Kidd, M.R., C.E. Kidd, and T.D. Kocher. 2006. Axes of differentiation in the bower-building cichlids of Lake Malawi. Molecular Ecology 15 (2): 459-478. Abstract download full text
Kidd, M.R., and T.D. Kocher. 2003. The evolution of male bower form within three genera of Lake Malawi cichlids. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43 (6): 829. [Meeting abstract]
Kijimoto, T., M. Watanabe, K. Fujimura, M. Nakazawa, Y. Murakami, S. Kuratani, Y. Kohara, T. Gojobori, and N. Okada. 2005. cimp1, a novel astacin family metalloproteinase gene from East African cichlids, is differentially expressed between species during growth. Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 (8): 1649-1660 [Epub 27 Apr 2005 ahead of print]. [In Lake Victoria Haplochromis spp.] Abstract
Kingdon, M.J., H.A. Bootsma, J. Mwita, B. Mwichande, and R.E. Hecky. 1999. River discharge and water quality. Pages 29-69 in: Water quality report, Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project. SADC/GEF.
Kilham, P., and S.S. Kilham. 1990. Endless summer: internal loading processes dominate nutrient cycling in tropical lakes. Freshwater Biology 23 (2): 379-389.
Kilham, P., S.S. Kilham, and R.E. Hecky. 1986. Hypothesized resource relationships among African planktonic diatoms. Limnology and Oceanography 31 (6): 1169-1181. download full text
Kirkpatrick, M., and T. Price. 2008. In sight of speciation. Nature 455 (2 October): 601-602. [Commentary on Seehausen et al. (2008)]
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Klee, R., and S.J. Casper. 1992. New centric diatoms (Thalassiosirales) of Lake Malawi (formerly Lake Nyassa; Malawi, East Africa). Archiv für Protistenkunde 142: 179-182.
Klee, R., S. Schiefele, and E. Hert. 1990. Planktische und benthische Diatomeen des Malawi Sees. Pp. 125-137 in: Ricard, M. (ed.). Ouvrage dédié à la mémoire du Professeur Henry Germain (1903-1989). ISBN 3-87429-322-X. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Germany.
Klein, D., and C. O'hUigín. 1995. Class-II B-Mhc motifs in an evolutionary perspective. Immunological Reviews 143: 89-111. [Not seen]
Klein, D., H. Ono, C. O'hUigín, V. Vincek, T. Goldschmidt, and J. Klein. 1993. Extensive MHC variability in cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi. Nature 364 (6435): 330-334.
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Klein, J. 1996. The major histocompatibility complex and the neutral theory: The exception that proves the rule? Journal of Genetics 75 (1): 117-124. [Not seen]
Klein, J., D. Klein, F. Figueroa, A. Sato, and C. O'hUigín. 1997. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the study of fish phylogeny. Pp. 271-283 in: Molecular Systematics of Fishes. T. Kocher and C. Stepien (editors). Academic Press, San Diego.
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Klein, J., A. Sato, S. Nagl, and C. O'hUigín. 1998. Molecular trans- species polymorphism. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 29: 1-21. Abstract
Klett, V., and A. Meyer. 2002. What, if anything, is a Tilapia? — Mitochondrial ND2 phylogeny of tilapiines and the evolution of parental care systems in the African cichlid fishes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (6): 865-883. Abstract download full text [Provocative paper concludes tilapiines are not a natural group; suggests limiting the genus Tilapia to the type species T. sparrmanii; & suggests one group of tilapiines (Sarotherodon, Oreochromis, Iranocichla, and Tristramella) is more closely related to haplochromines than to other tilapiines. Truth? Molecular systematics run amok? In between?]
Knight, M.E. 1999. Sexual selection and speciation in Lake Malawi cichlids. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southampton. popup abstract
Knight, M.E., M.J.H. van Oppen, H.L. Smith, C. Rico, G.M. Hewitt, and G.F. Turner. 1999. Evidence for male-biased dispersal in Lake Malawi cichlids from microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 8 (9): 1521-1527. Abstract download full text
Knight, M.E., and G.F. Turner. 1999. Reproductive isolation among closely related Lake Malawi cichlids: Can males recognize conspecific females by visual cues? Animal Behaviour 58: 761-768. [The authors found experimentally that males of some Pseudotropheus (Maylandia) species could clearly identify conspecific females using only visual cues, but that those of other species could not do so.] popup abstract download full text
Knight, M.E., and G.F. Turner. 2004. Laboratory mating trials indicate incipient speciation by sexual selection among populations of the cichlid fish Pseudotropheus zebra from Lake Malawi. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 271 (1540): 675-680. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2639 Abstract download full text
Knight, M.E., G.F. Turner, C. Rico, M.J.H. van Oppen, & G.M. Hewett. 1998. Microsatellite paternity analysis on captive Lake Malawi cichlids supports reproductive isolation by direct mate choice. Molecular Ecology 7 (11): 1605-1610. popup abstract download full text
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Kobayashi, N., M. Watanabe, T. Kijimoto, K. Fujimura, M. Nakazawa, K. Ikeo, Y. Kohara, T. Gojobori, and N. Okada. 2006. magp4 gene may contribute to the diversification of cichlid morphs and their speciation. Gene (Mar 3). [Epub ahead of print]
Koblmüller, S., N. Duftner, C. Katongo, H. Phiri, and C. Sturmbauer. 2005. Ancient divergence in bathypelagic Lake Tanganyika deepwater cichlids: Mitochondrial phylogeny of the tribe Bathybatini. Journal of Molecular Evolution 60 (3): 297-314. Abstract
Koblmüller, S., N. Duftner, K.M. Sefc, M. Aibara, M. Stipacek, M. Blanc, B. Egger, and C. Sturmbauer. 2007. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika-the result of repeated introgressive hybridization. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7 (1): 7. Abstract download full text
Koblmüller, S., B. Egger, C. Sturmbauer, and K.M. Sefc. 2007. Evolutionary history of Lake Tanganyika's scale-eating cichlid fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44 (3): 1295-1305. Abstract
Koblmüller, S., B. Egger, C. Sturmbauer, and K.M. Sefc. 2010. Rapid radiation, ancient incomplete lineage sorting and ancient hybridization in the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Tropheini. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55 (1): 318-334. Abstract
Koblmüller, S., E.A. Odhiambo, D. Sinyinza, C. Sturmbauer, and K.M. Sefc. 2014. Big fish, little divergence: phylogeography of Lake Tanganyika’s giant cichlid, Boulengerochromis microlepis. Hydrobiologia (May), 10 pp. doi:10.1007/s10750-014-1863-z Abstract download full text
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Koblmüller, S., W. Salzburger, B. Obermüller, E. Eigner, C. Sturmbauer, and K.M. Sefc. 2011. Separated by sand, fused by dropping water: habitat barriers and fluctuating water levels steer the evolution of rock-dwelling cichlid populations in Lake Tanganyika. Molecular Ecology 20 (11): 2272–2290. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05088.x Abstract
Koblmüller, S., W. Salzburger, and C. Sturmbauer. 2004. Evolutionary relationships in the sand-dwelling cichlid lineage of Lake Tanganyika suggest multiple colonization of rocky habitats and convergent origin of biparental mouthbrooding. Journal of Molecular Evolution 58 (1): 79-96. Abstract
Koblmüller, S., U.K. Schliewen, N. Duftner, K.M. Sefc, C. Katongo, and C. Sturmbauer. 2008. Age and spread of the haplochromine cichlid fishes in Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (1): 153-169. Abstract
Koblmüller, S., K.M. Sefc, N. Duftner, C. Katongo, T. Tomljanovic, and C. Sturmbauer. 2008. A single mitochondrial haplotype and nuclear genetic differentiation in sympatric colour morphs of a riverine cichlid fish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21 (1): 362-367. Epub 2007 Nov 15. Abstract [In the Pseudocrenilabrus philander complex]
Koblmüller, S., K.M. Sefc, N. Duftner, M. Warum, and C. Sturmbauer. 2006. Genetic population structure as indirect measure of dispersal ability in a Lake Tanganyika cichlid. Genetica 2006 Aug 9 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract [The cichlid is Neolamprologus caudopunctatus]
Koblmüller, S., C. Sturmbauer, E. Verheyen, A. Meyer, and W. Salzburger. 2006. Mitochondrial phylogeny and phylogeography of East African squeaker catfishes (Siluriformes: Synodontis). BMC Evolutionary Biology 6: 49, 16 pp. download full text [Includes S. njassae of L. Malawi]
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Kocher, T.D. 2003. Fractious phylogenies. Nature 423 (29 May): 489, 491. [Abstract: "Speciation has been unusually fast among the cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria. An unexpectedly distant ancestor, which perhaps already had a predisposition for rapid speciation, may have seeded this 'species flock'."] download full text
Kocher, T.D. 2004. Adaptive evolution and explosive speciation: The cichlid fish model. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 288-298. download full text
Kocher, T.D. 2005. Ghost of speciation past. Nature 435: 29-30. download full text [Commentary on Joyce, Lunt, et al. (2005)]
Kocher, T.D., R.C. Albertson, K.L. Carleton, and J.T. Streelman. 2002. The genetic basis of biodiversity: Genomic studies of cichlid fishes. Pages 35-44 in: Shimizu, N., T. Aoki, I. Hirono, and F. Takashima (Eds.). Aquatic genomics: Steps toward a great future. Springer, Tokyo. download full text
Kocher, T.D., J.A. Conroy, K.R. McKaye, and J.R. Stauffer. 1993. Similar morphologies of cichlid fishes in Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi are due to convergence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 2 (2): 158-165. Abstract download full text
Kocher T.D., J.A. Conroy, K.R. McKaye, J.R. Stauffer, Jr, and S.F. Lockwood. 1995. Evolution of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 in east African cichlid fish. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4 (4): 420-432. Abstract download full text
Kocher, T.D., and K.R. McKaye. 1983. Defense of heterospecific cichlids by Cyrtocara moorii in Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1983 (2): 544-547. [Feeding behavior of C. moorii, Protomelas annectens, and Taeniolethrinops praeorbitalis] popup abstract download full text
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Kohda, Y., and M. Watanabe. 1988. Preference for striped backgrounds by striped fishes. Zoological Science (Tokyo) 5 (2): 501-503. [In various Asian fishes and Melanochromis auratus]
Kolm, N., N.B. Goodwin, S. Balshine, and J.D. Reynolds. 2006a. Life history evolution in cichlids 1: Revisiting the evolution of life histories in relation to parental care. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19 (1): 66-75. Abstract ["...[C]ontrary to expectation, there is no positive link between egg size and care duration in Cichlidae. Instead, greater reproductive output through increased clutch size investment appears to have coevolved with greater care of offspring."]
Kolm, N., N.B. Goodwin, S. Balshine, and J.D. Reynolds. 2006b. Life history evolution in cichlids 2: Directional evolution of the trade-off between egg number and egg size. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19 (1): 76-84. Abstract ["By using comparative methods with a database of life histories and a phylogeny of 222 genera of cichlid fishes, we investigated the order of evolutionary transitions in [egg size and clutch size] in relation to each other."]
Konings, A. 1990. Descriptions of six new Malawi cichlids. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 38 (11): 110-129. [Copadichromis azureus, C. mbenjii, C. verduyni, Otopharynx walteri, Iodotropheus stuartgranti, Pseudotropheus saulosi]
Konings, A. 1990a. Konings's Book of Cichlids and All the Other Fishes of Lake Malawi. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey; 495 pages. ISBN 0-86622-527-7.
Konings, A. 1993. A revision of the genus Sciaenochromis Eccles & Trewavas, 1989 (Pisces, Cichlidae). The Cichlids Yearbook, Volume 3: 28-36. Cichlid Press, St. Leon-Rot, Germany; 96 pp. [S. fryeri, S. psammophilus, & S. benthicola, spp. nov.]
Konings, A. 1994. Pseudotropheus demasoni sp. nov.: a sexually monomorphic cichlid from the Tanzanian coast of Lake Malawi. The Cichlids Yearbook, Volume 4: 24-27. Cichlid Press, St. Leon-Rot, Germany; 96 pp.
Konings, A. 1995a. A review of the sand-dwelling species of the genus Aulonocara, with the description of three new species. The Cichlids Yearbook, Volume 5: 26-36. Cichlid Press, St. Leon-Rot, Germany; 96 pp. [A. gertrudae, A. brevinidus, and A. aquilonium, spp. nov.]
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Konings, A. 1995b. Description of Pseudotropheus estherae sp. nov., the well-known Red Zebra Cichlid from Lake Malawi. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 43 (9): 206-210. download full text
Konings, A. 1995c. Malawi cichlids in their natural habitat. Second edition. Cichlid Press [no location given]; 352 pp. ISBN 3-928457-29-2. [See also Konings (2001a)]
Konings, A. 1999. Descriptions of three new Copadichromis species (Labroidei; Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 47 (9), May: 62-64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76-77, 82, 84. [Copadichromis trewavasae (p. 64), C. geertsi (p. 70), C. ilesi (p. 74). Although well illustrated in color and taxonomically sound, this article is unfortunately flawed by multiple editorial gaffes; see Note 8.]
Konings, A. 1999a. Comments on the revision of Pseudotropehus zebra. Cichlid News (January), 8 (1) [pages ?-?]. [Not seen. Konings takes the minority view that Metriaclima is valid and Maylandia is invalid (but see Condé & Gery, 1999). He also concludes that only 2 to 4 of the 10 new zebra species proposed by Stauffer et al. (1997) are valid.]
Konings, A. 2001a. Malawi cichlids in their natural habitat. Third edition. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas; 352 pp. ISBN 0-9668255-3-5.
Konings, A. 2001b. The cichlids of Lake Malawi. CD-ROM, Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas. ISBN 0-9668255-4-3. Publisher's blurb
Konings, A. 2007. Malawi cichlids in their natural habitat. Fourth edition. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas; 424 pp. ISBN 978-1-932892-05-5. Publisher's blurb
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Konings, A.F., and J.R. Stauffer. 2006. Revised diagnosis of Metriaclima (Teleostei: Cichlidae) with description of a new species from Lake Malawi National Park, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 17 (3): 233-246. Abstract [The new species, M. flavifemina, is the entity previously known as Pseudotropheus zebra 'black dorsal.' The authors redescribe Metriaclima but avoid making any reference that I could find to Maylandia, considered by most authorities to be the senior synonym and therefore the valid name of the genus. I suspect that most workers will refer to the new taxon as Maylandia flavifemina]
Konings, A.F., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2012. Review of the Lake Malawi genus Melanochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) with a description of a new species. Zootaxa 3258: 1-27. Abstract download full text [Melanochromis mpoto sp. nov.; M. parallelus is a junior synonym of M. loriae; M. chipokae and M. robustus redescribed]
Konings-Dudin, G., A.F. Konings, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2009. Descriptions of three new species of Melanochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) and a redescription of M. vermivorus. Zootaxa 2076: 37-59. download full text [M. kaskazini, M. wochepa, and M. mossambiquensis]
Kornfield, I.L. 1974. Evolutionary genetics of endemic cichlid fishes (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Lake Malawi, Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York, Stony Brook, xv+139 pp. popup abstract
Kornfield, I.L. 1978. Evidence for rapid speciation in African cichlid fishes. Experientia 34: 335-336.
Kornfield, I. 1984. Descriptive genetics of cichlid fishes. Pp. 591-616 in Turner, B.J. (ed.), Evolutionary Genetics of Fishes. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York.
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Kornfield, I. 1991. Genetics. Pp. 103-128 in Keenleyside, M.H.A. (ed.), Cichlid fishes. Behaviour, ecology and evolution. Chapman & Hall, London.
Kornfield, I., S.M. Bogdaniwicz, and D.M. McElroy. 1987. Inheritance of adenosine deaminase in Malawi cichlids. Isozyme Bulletin 20: 10.
Kornfield, I., K.R. McKaye, and T. Kocher. 1985. Evidence for the immigration hypothesis in the endemic cichlid fauna of Lake Tanganyika. Isozyme Bulletin 18: 76.
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Kornfield, I., and A. Parker. 1997. Molecular systematics of a rapidly evolving species flock: the mbuna of Lake Malawi and the search for phylogenetic signal. Pp. 25-37 in: Molecular Systematics of Fishes. T. Kocher and C. Stepien (editors). Academic Press, San Diego. popup abstract [Note: The three congeneric pairs of mbuna treated in this paper, and mentioned in the Summary (see Abstract button), are Pseudotropheus zebra "BB" and P. zebra "black dorsal"; Labeotropheus trewavasae and L. fuelleborni; and Melanochromis auratus and M. parallelus.]
Kornfield, I., and P.F. Smith. 2000. African cichlid fishes: Model systems for evolutionary biology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 163-196. popup abstract download full text [An excellent and timely review. Figure 1 contains underwater color photos showing variation in coloration of some members of the Maylandia zebra complex (as Metriaclima): M. benetos, M. pyrsonotos, M. thapsinogen.]
Korniushin, A.V. 2004. A revision of some Asian and African freshwater clams assigned to Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Corbiculidae), with a review of anatomical characters and reproductive features based on museum collections. Hydrobiologia 529 (1): 255-270. Abstract [Includes consideration of Corbicula africana (or C. fluminalis africana) of Lake Malawi]
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Kosswig, C. 1947. Selective mating as a factor for speciation in cichlid fish of East African lakes. Nature 159: 604-605.
Kraaijeveld, K., and A. Pomiankowski. 2004. Evolution: Love thy neighbour. Current Biology 14 (11): R419-R421. Abstract
Kullander, S.O., and T.R. Roberts. 2012. Out of Lake Tanganyika: endemic lake fishes inhabit rapids of the Lukuga River. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 22 (4): 355-376. [Open access paper] download full text
Kumambala, P.G., and A. Ervine. 2010. Water balance model of Lake Malawi and its sensitivity to climate change. Open Hydrology Journal 4: 152-162. doi:10.2174/1874378101004010152 download full text
Kuraku, S., and A. Meyer. 2008. Genomic analysis of cichlid fish 'natural mutants'. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 18: 551-558. Abstract
Kuroda, N., T.S. Uinuk-ool, A. Sato, I.E. Samonte, F. Figueroa, W.E. Mayer, and J. Klein. 2003. Identification of chemokines and a chemokine receptor in cichlid fish, shark, and lamprey. Immunogenetics 54 (12): 884-895. Abstract [The cichlids are Melanochromis auratus and Paralabidochromis chilotes]
Kuusipalo, L. 1998a. Scale morphology in Malawian cichlids. Journal of Fish Biology 52: 771-781. popup abstract
Kuusipalo, L. 1998b. Fatty acids of the muscle in endemic cichlids of Lake Malawi. Journal of Fish Biology 53A: 436-???
Kuusipalo, L. 1999. Genetic diversity of endemic fish in Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Joensuu, Finland. Published in: Joensuun yliopiston luonnontieteellisiä julkaisuja 51 (= University of Joensuu, Publications in Sciences: 51). 23 pages. ISSN 0781-0342. Book version: ISBN 951-708-786-1.
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Kuusipalo, L. 2000. Evolutionary inferences from the scale morphology of Malawian cichlid fishes. Pp. 377-397 in: Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe, eds. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, volume 31. Academic Press, London. popup abstract
Kuusipalo, L., and R. Käkelä. 2000. Muscle fatty acids as indicators of niche and habitat in Malawian cichlids. Limnology and Oceanography 45 (4): 996-1000. popup abstract download full text
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Ladiges, W. 1968. Die bedeutung ökologischer Faktoren für die Differenzierung der Cichliden des Tanganjika- und Njassa-Sees. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie 53: 339-352.
Lake Malawi National Park Master Plan. 1981. Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Lilongwe, Malawi.
Lam, D.C.L., L. Leon, R. Hecky, H. Bootsma, and R.C. McCrimmon. [Date?] A modelling approach for Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: Integrating hydrological and limnological data. [citation?] download full text
Lam, D.C.L., L.F. Leon, C. McCrimmon, R. Hecky, and H. Bootsma. 2000. An 11-box water quality model for Lake Malawi. Pages 8.1-8.16 in: Bootsma, H., and R. Hecky (eds.). Preparation of a preliminary physical processes and water quality model for Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Final report, World Bank No. 7106875 "avec l'UNU/INWEH et accord No 99/076 UNU-INRE-ICA."
Lam, D., L. Leon, C. McCrimmon, R. Hecky, and H. Bootsma. (In press). A modelling approach for Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: Integrating climatological, hydrological and limnological data. Proceedings of the 2nd IDEAL Conference, Malawi, January 2000.
Lam, D.C.L., J. Neysmith, and D.A. Swayne. 2000. Integration of data and models - the RAISON system. Pages 5.1-5.28 in: Bootsma, H., and R. Hecky (eds.). Preparation of a preliminary physical processes and water quality model for Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Final report, World Bank No. 7106875 "avec l'UNU/INWEH et accord No 99/076 UNU-INRE-ICA."
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Lande, R., O. Seehausen, and J.J.M. van Alphen. 2001. Mechanisms of rapid sympatric speciation by sex reversal and sexual selection in cichlid fish. Genetica 112: 435-443. popup abstract
Lane, C.S., B.T. Chorn, and T.C. Johnson. 2013. Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 110 (20): 8025–8029. doi:10.1073/pnas.1301474110 Abstract [See Lane et al., 2013a, R.G. Roberts et al., 2013a]
Lane, C.S., B.T. Chorn, and T.C. Johnson. 2013a. Reply to Roberts et al.: A subdecadal record of paleoclimate around the Youngest Toba Tuff in Lake Malawi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 110 (33): E3048. doi:10.1073/pnas.1309815110 download full text [See Lane et al., 2013, R.G. Roberts et al., 2013a]
Lang, M., T. Miyake, I. Braasch, D. Tinnemore, N. Siegel, W. Salzburger, C.T. Amemiya, and A. Meyer. 2006 (in press). A BAC library of the East African haplochromine cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution [Epub ahead of print 2005 Oct 27]. Abstract
Lange, E. 1992. Artbildung auf den Hawaii-Inseln und in den grossen ostafrikanischen Seen. Biologisches Zentralblatt 111 (2): 92-113.
Lazaro, M., and W.W. Lazaro Jere. 2013. The status of the commercial chambo (Oreochromis species) fishery in Malawi: a time series approach. International Journal of Science and Technology 3 (6): 322-327. Abstract download full text
Lea, I. 1864. Descriptions of six new species of UNIONIDAE from Lake Nyassa, Central Africa, &c. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 16: 108-109. [Mollusca] download full text
Lea, I. 1866a. New Unionidae, Melanidae, etc., chiefly of the United States. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (series 2) 6: 5-65. download full text [Six species collected by Kirk on Livingston's Zambesi Expedition are described on pp. 32-37, including several from Lake Nyassa (Malawi).]
Lea, I. 1866b. On Leaia leidyi = Cypricardia leidyi; Descriptions of fourteen new species of Melanidae; Descriptions of eleven new species of exotic Unionidae; Descriptions of twenty-four new species of Unionidae; Descriptions of a new species of Unio and a Monocondyloea; Description of a new genus of the family Melanidae; Descriptions of eleven new species of Melanidae; Description of & remarks on Planorbis newberryi; Descriptions of six new species of Unionidae from Lake Nyassa; Descriptions of six new species of Succinea, etc.; Descriptions of thirteen new species of Melanidae; Description of a new species of Planorbis; Descriptions of five new species of Lymnea; Descriptions of two new species of Unionidae, from South Africa; Descriptions of twenty-four new species of Physa; Descriptions of six new species of western Asiatic Unionidae; Descriptions of three new species of exotic Uniones; Descriptions of eight new species of Unio. Merrihew & Son, Printers, Philadelphia, pp. 1-32. [Mollusca]
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Lehman, J.T. 1996. Pelagic food webs of the East African Great Lakes. Pages 281-302 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Lehman, J.T. (ed.). 1998. Environmental change and response in East African Lakes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht and Boston, 236 pp. Publisher's blurb
Leon, L.F., D.C. Lam, C. McCrimmon, and D.A. Swayne. 2001. Model integration for watershed management: A case study for Lake Malawi/Nyasa/ Niassa. Pages 68-80 in: 4th International Symposium on Environmental Software Systems, ISESS 2001, Banff, Alberta, Canada. IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) Publishers. [Citation to be verified] download full text
Leon, L.F., D.C. Lam, C. McCrimmon, and D.A. Swayne. 2003. Watershed management modelling in Malawi: application and technology transfer. Environmental Modelling & Software 18 (6): 531-539. Abstract
Leroi, A.M. 2000. The scale independence of evolution. Evolution & Development 2 (2): 67-77. [Fairly extensive discussion of cichlids, especially those of Lake Malawi]
Lewis, D.J. 1961. The Simulium neavei complex (Diptera, Simuliidae) in Nyasaland. Journal of Animal Ecology 30: 303.
Lewis, D.S.C. 1980. A further examination of the taxonomic status of Labidochromis joanjohnsonae Johnson 1974 with a redescription of the species (Pisces Cichlidae). Revue de Zoologie Africaine 94: 959-971. [Redescribes L. joanjohnsonae, transfers it to Melanochromis, synonymizes M. exasperatus Burgess with it, and discusses the extensive confusion initially surrounding this species] popup abstract
Lewis, D.S.C. 1981. Preliminary comparisons between the ecology of the haplochromine cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria and Lake Malawi. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 31: 746-761.
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Lewis, D.S.C. 1982a. A revision of the genus Labidochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 75: 189-265. popup abstract
Lewis, D.S.C. 1982b. Problems of species definition in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes (Pisces: Cichlidae). Special Publications of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, No. 23, [ii] + 5 + [i] pp. [Examines the pitfalls of taxonomy without in-the-lake knowledge of the living fishes, illustrated with several examples of species descriptions unwittingly including multiple (suspected) biological species — including the type series of Labidochromis vellicans Trewavas and L. textilis Oliver (one of my own early efforts), both of which, in Lewis's opinion, include individuals of several distinct species] download full text
Lewis, D.S.C. 1990. A review of the research conducted on chambo (Oreochromis spp.) and the chambo fisheries of Lakes Malawi and Malombe, 1859-1985. Collected Reports on Fisheries Research in Malawi Occasional Papers 1: 5-22.
Lewis, D.S.C., P.N. Reinthal, and J. Trendall. 1986. A guide to the fishes of Lake Malawi National Park. Creda Press, for World Wildlife Fund, Gland, Switzerland. 71 pages.
Lewis, D.S.C., P.N. Reinthal, and J. Trendall. 1987. Conservation of threatened fish communities in Lake Malawi National Park. World Wildlife Fund project no. 1983 — Malawi, final report.
Lewis, D.S.C., and D. Tweddle. 1990a. Breeding seasonality in some commercially important trawl-caught species in southern Malawi. Collected Reports on Fisheries Research in Malawi Occasional Papers 1: 23-35.
Lewis, D.S.C., and D. Tweddle. 1990b. The yield of usipa (Engraulicypris sardella) from the Nankumba Peninsula, Lake Malawi (1985-1986). Collected Reports on Fisheries Research in Malawi, Occasional Papers No. 1: 57-66. Overseas Development Administration, London.
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Liem, K.F., and J.W.M. Osse. 1975. Biological versatility, evolution, and food resource exploitation in African cichlid fishes. American Zoologist 15: 427-454. popup abstract [Includes some discussion, and scanning-electron micrographs, of the dentition of Lake Malawi species. I suspect that their "Haplochromis placodon" (Fig. 18) is actually Trematocranus microstoma.]
Linn, I.J., and K.L.I. Campbell. 1986. Cormorants and fisheries: a report on the biology of the White-breasted cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo, as it affects the commercial fisheries of Lake Malawi. University of Exeter, Department of Biological Sciences, Report to ODA, London, 51 pp. [See next item]
Linn, I.J., and K.L.I. Campbell. 1992. Interactions between White-Breasted Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae) and the Fisheries of Lake Malawi. Journal of Applied Ecology 29 (3): 619-634. popup abstract
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, Editio X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. i-ii + 1-824 [Mormyrops anguilloides, p. 327] download full text
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Lippitsch, E. 1989. Scale surface morphology in African cichlids (Pisces, Perciformes). Pp. 105-108 in: Crapon de Caprona, M.-D., and B. Fritzch (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Biology, Ecology and Conservation of Cichlids, Bielefeld, West Germany, 24-27 February 1988. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 257.
Lippitsch, E. 1993. A phyletic study on lacustrine haplochromine fishes (Perciformes, Cichlidae) of East Africa, based on scale and squamation characters. Journal of Fish Biology 42: 903-946. popup abstract
Lippitsch, E. 1995. Scale and squamation character polarity and phyletic assessment in the family Cichlidae. Journal of Fish Biology 47: 91-106. popup abstract
Lippitsch, E. 1997. Phylogenetic investigations on the haplochromine Cichlidae of Lake Kivu (East Africa), based on lepidological characters. Journal of Fish Biology 42: 903-946. popup abstract
Lippitsch, E., H. Kawanabe, M. Hiro, and M. Nagoshi. 1998. Phylogenetic study of cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika: a lepidological approach. Journal of Fish Biology 53: 752-766. popup abstract
Lippitsch, E., and N. Micklich. 1998. Cichlid fish biodiversity in an Oligocene lake. Italian Journal of Zoology 65 (1): 185-188. Abstract download full text [The Oligocene lake is in SW Saudi Arabia; one basal-grade cichlid and at least two related to different African lineages are discussed and illustrated]
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Lissa, J. van. 1982. Food habits of Engrualicypris sardella along the shoreline of Lake Malawi. Pp. 98-108 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1, FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Lisy, M.R. 2006. Systematics and bower-building behavior of the Tramitichromis Eccles and Trewavas (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the southeast arm of Lake Malawi, Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, University Park. popup abstract Abstract download full text
Livingstone, D., and C. Livingstone. 1865. Narrative of an expedition to the Zambesi and its tributaries: and of the discovery of the Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858-1864. John Murray, London. [Available online at Project Gutenberg: download full text and reprinted by The Narrative Press (Santa Barbara, California): Publisher's blurb and by Duckworth (London): Publisher's blurb]
Livingstone, D., B. Rosendahl, R. Dunseath, J. Maley, P. Bailey, K. Haberyan, D. Burney, G. Sugihara, M. Patterson, C. Ebinger, F. Spy-Anderson, J. Nelson, M. Crow, J. LeFournier, C. Stager, R. Kendall, J. Melack, M. LaBarbera, C. LeMut, W. Cromie, J.J. Tiercelin, M. Mvumbi, & J. Chorowitz. 1983. Potential sites for a long core in the East African Rift. Bulletin des Centres des Recherches, Exploration, et Production, Elf Aquitaine 7: 443-448.
Lobel, P.S. 1998. Possible species specific courtship sounds by two sympatric cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi, Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 52: 443-452. [The two species are Copadichromis conophoros and Tramitichromis intermedius] popup abstract
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Löffler, H. 1993. The future of large lakes in the Third World. Memorie dell' Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia Dott Marco de Marchi 52: 27-38.
Loh, Y-H.E., L.S. Katz, M.C. Mims, T.D. Kocher, S. Yi, and J.T. Streelman. 2008. Comparative analysis reveals signatures of differentiation amid genomic polymorphism in Lake Malawi cichlids. Genome Biology 9: R113 (10 July 2008). doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-r113 Abstract download full text
Loh, Y-H.E., S.V. Yi, and J.T. Streelman. 2011. Evolution of microRNAs and the diversification of species. Genome Biology and Evolution [epub 15 Dec 2010 ahead of print]. doi:10.1093/gbe/evq085 Abstract download full text
Louda, S.M., W.N. Gray, K.R. McKaye, and O.K. Mhone. 1984[?]. Distribution of gastropod genera over a vertical depth gradient at Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi. The Veliger 25 (4): 387-392. popup abstract download full text
Louda, S.M., and K.R. McKaye. 1982. Diurnal movements in populations of the prosobranch Lanistes nyassanus at Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi, Africa. Malacologia 23 (1): 13-21.
Louda, S.M., K.R. McKaye, T.D. Kocher, and C.J. Stackhouse. 1984. Activity, dispersion, and size distributions of Lanistes nyassanus and L. solidus (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae) over the depth gradient at Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi, Africa. The Veliger 26: 145-152. download full text
LoVullo, T.J., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and K.R. McKaye. 1992. Diet and growth of a brood of Bagrus meridionalis Günther (Siluriformes, Bagridae) in Lake Malawi, Africa. 1992. Copeia (4): 1084-1088.
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Lowe, R.H. 1952. Report on the Tilapia and other fish and fisheries of Lake Nyasa, 1945-47. Colonial Fishery Publications 1 (2): 1-126.
Lowe, R.H. 1953. Notes on the ecology and evolution of Nyasa fishes of the genus Tilapia, with a description of T. saka Lowe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1035-1041.
Lowe-McConnell, R.H. 1959. Breeding behaviour patterns and ecological differences between Tilapia species and their significance for evolution within the genus Tilapia (Pisces: Cichlidae). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 132: 1-130.
Lowe-McConnell, R.H. 1987. Ecological studies in tropical fish communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lowe-McConnell, R.H. 1993. Fish faunas of the African Great-Lakes — origins, diversity, and vulnerability. Conservation Biology 7 (3): 634-643. popup abstract
Lowe-McConnell, R.H. 1994. The roles of ecological and behaviour studies of cichlids in understanding fish diversity and speciation in the African Great Lakes: A review. Pp. 335-345 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
Lowe-McConnell, R.H. 1995. Fischereiwirtschaft und Ichthyologie. Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift (DATZ), Sonderheft "Malawisee": 18-20. [Includes some wonderful photos, including Ethelwynn Trewavas on board the M/L Ethelwynn Trewavas] download full text
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Lowe-McConnell, R. 1996. Fish communities in the African great lakes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 45 (3): 219-235. popup abstract
Lowe-McConnell, R.H. 2002. Cichlids all! With an ecological view of African cichlids. Environmental Biology of Fishes 63: 459-463. [Called a critique of Barlow (2000), but also a good summary of 50 years of research on the cichlids of Lakes Malawi, Tanganyika, and Victoria.] First page
Lowe-McConnell, R. 2003. Recent research in the African Great Lakes: Fisheries, biodiversity and cichlid evolution. Freshwater Forum, volume 20, 64 pp. ISSN 0961-4664. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, UK. Publisher's blurb and ordering information popup abstract
Lowe-McConnell, R. 2009. Fisheries and cichlid evolution in the African Great Lakes: Progress and problems. Freshwater Reviews 2 (2): 131-151. Abstract [Update of Lowe-McConnell (2003), the preceding item]
Lowe-McConnell, R.H., F.C. Roest, G. Ntakimazi, and L. Risch. 1994. The African great lakes. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren) 275: 87-94.
Lundberg, J.G., M. Kottelat, G.R. Smith, M.L.J. Stiassny, and A.C. Gill. 2000. So many fishes, so little time: An overview of recent ichthyological discovery in continental waters. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 87 (1): 26-62. Abstract
Lundeba, M., J.S. Likongwe, H. Madsen, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2006. Preliminary study on the culture and breeding of Bulinus nyassanus (Mollusca: Pulmonata) under laboratory conditions. African Zoology 41: 143-144. Abstract
Lundeba, M., J.S. Likongwe, H. Madsen, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2007. Potential of Metriaclima lanisticola (Teleostei: Cichlidae) for biological control of schistosome intermediate host snails. African Zoology 42 (1): 45-49. Abstract [Metriaclima = Maylandia]
Lundeba, M., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and A. Konings. 2011. Five new species of the genus Petrotilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae), from Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 22 (2): 149-168. [Petrotilapia flaviventris, P. mumboensis, P. palingnathos, P. pyroscelos, and P. xanthos] download full text (open access)
Lyons, R.P., C.N. Kroll, and C.A. Scholz. 2011. An energy-balance hydrologic model for the Lake Malawi Rift Basin, East Africa. Global and Planetary Change 75 (1-2): 83-97. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.10.010 Abstract
Lyons, R.P., C.A. Scholz, M.R. Buoniconti, and M.R. Martin. 2011. Late Quaternary stratigraphic analysis of the Lake Malawi Rift, East Africa: an integration of drill-core and seismic-reflection data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 20-37. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.04.014 Abstract
Lyons, R.P., C.A. Scholz, J.W. King, A.S. Cohen, and T.C. Johnson. 2006. Correlation of seismic reflection and sediment drillcore data from the Lake Malawi Rift Basin, east Africa [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, 22-25 October 2006, Philadelphia. Session No. 28, Core analysis of lake sediments (posters). Abstracts with programs, Vol. 38, No. 7, p. 84. download full text
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Maan, M.E. 2006. Sexual selection and speciation: mechanisms in Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Leiden. Abstract download full text ["I studied two representative model systems, the highly polymorphic species Neochromis omnicaeruleus and the species pair Pundamilia nyererei and P. pundamilia."]
Maan, M.E., B. Eshuis, M.P. Haesler, M.V. Schneider, J.J.M. van Alphen, and O. Seehausen. 2008. Color polymorphism and predation in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Copeia (3): 621-629. Abstract [Blotched morph in Neochromis omnicaeruleus]
Maan, M.E., M.P. Haesler, O. Seehausen, and J.J. van Alphen. 2006. Heritability and heterochrony of polychromatism in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish: stepping stones for speciation? Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 306B [Epub ahead of print 15 Dec 2005]. Abstract
Maan, M.E., K.D. Hofker, J.J. van Alphen, and O. Seehausen. 2006. Sensory drive in cichlid speciation. American Naturalist 167 (6): 947-954. Abstract
Maan, M.E., and O. Seehausen. 2010. Mechanisms of species divergence through visual adaptation and sexual selection: Perspectives from a cichlid model system. Current Zoology 56 (3): 285-299. Abstract download full text [In Lake Victoria Pundamilia]
Maan, M.E., O. Seehausen, L. Soderberg, L. Johnson, E.A. Ripmeester, H.D. Mrosso, M.I. Taylor, T.J. van Dooren, and J.J. van Alphen. 2004. Intraspecific sexual selection on a speciation trait, male coloration, in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia nyererei. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B - Biological Sciences 271 (1556): 2445-2452. Abstract
Maan, M.E., A.M.C. Van Rooijen, J.J.M. Van Alphen, and O. Seehausen. 2008. Parasite-mediated sexual selection and species divergence in Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society [London] 94: 53-60. Abstract [In Pundamilia spp.]
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Mabuchi, K., M. Miya, Y. Azuma, and M. Nishida. 2007. Independent evolution of the specialized pharyngeal jaw apparatus in cichlid and labrid fishes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 10. Abstract download full text
Machado, H.E., G. Jui, D.A. Joyce, C.R.L. Reilly, D.H. Lunt, and S.C.P. Renn. 2014. Gene duplication in an African cichlid adaptive radiation. BMC Genomics 2014, 15: 161. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-161 Abstract download full text [Includes 3 Lake Malawi endemics: Metriaclima(=Maylandia) estherae, Protomelas similis, Rhamphochromis "chilingali"]
MacLennan, D.N., and A. Menz. 1996. Interpretation of in situ target- strength data. ICES Journal of Marine Science 53 (2): 233-236. [ICES = International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. The paper concerns sonar readings of Diplotaxodon shoals in Lake Malawi.] popup abstract
Madsen, H., P. Bloch, P. Makaula, H. Phiri, P. Furu, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2012. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi villages. EcoHealth (2011) 8 (2): 163-176. doi:10.1007/s10393-011-0687-9 Abstract
Madsen, H., P. Bloch, H. Phiri, T.K. Kristensen, and P. Furu. 2001. Bulinus nyassanus is an intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium in Lake Malawi. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 95 (4): 353-360. Abstract
Madsen, H., K.C.J. Kamanga, J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and J. Likongwe. 2010. Biology of the molluscivorous fish Trematocranus placodon (Pisces: Cichidae) from Lake Malawi. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 25 (3): 449-455. [No abstract online]
Madsen, H., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2012. Density of Trematocranus placodon (Pisces: Cichlidae): a predictor of density of the schistosome intermediate host, Bulinus nyassanus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae), in Lake Malawi. EcoHealth (2011) 8 (2): 177-189. doi:10.1007/s10393-011-0737-3 Abstract
Magalhaes, I.S., G.E. Croft, and D.A. Joyce. 2013. Altering an extended phenotype reduces intraspecific male aggression and can maintain diversity in cichlid fish. PeerJ 2013 Nov 26; 1: e209. [In Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus] doi:10.7717/peerj.209 Abstract download full text
Magasa, J.H. 1987. Yield and effort prediction for demersal fisheries in the South-East Arm of Lake Malawi. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Wales, Bangor, 83 pp.
Maguza-Tembo, F. 2002. Bio-economics of common resource over exploitation: Case of Lake Malombe chambo (Oreochromis Sp. Cichlidae) fishery in Malawi. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Economics Department, Norwegian College of Fisheries Science, University of Tromsø, Norway. download full text
Malaga-Trillo, E., Z. Zaleska-Rutczynska, B. McAndrew, V. Vincek, F. Figueroa, H. Sültmann, and J. Klein. 1998. Linkage relationships and haplotype polymorphism among cichlid Mhc class II B loci. Genetics 149(3):1527-1537. Abstract
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Manase, M. 2002. Malawi's small-scale fishery gear selectivity and performance in lake Malawi. Fisheries Bulletin No. ?. [In press as of 2002] Fisheries Department, Lilongwe, Malawi.
Manase, M.M., L.K. Mwenekibombwe, W. Namoto, and O. Mponda. 2002. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Southeast Arm of Lake Malawi. Fisheries Bulletin 52, 17 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (420 Kb)
Manconi, R., and R. Pronzato. 2002. Suborder Spongillina subord. nov.: Freshwater sponges. Pp. 921-1021 in: Hooper, J.N.A., and R.W.M. Van Soest (eds.). Systema Porifera: A guide to the classification of sponges. Kluwer/Plenum, New York. [Malawispongiidae, new family, is established on p. 975 (key to genera on p. 976) for five genera of freshwater sponge, including the type genus Malawispongia Brien, 1972] Extract
Mandahl-Barth, G. 1972. The freshwater Mollusca of Lake Malawi. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique africaines 86 (3-4): 257-289.
Mandahl-Barth, G. 1988. Studies on African freshwater bivalves. Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlottenlund, Denmark. 161 pp.
Mannon, M.J. 2013. Behavioral and early developmental biology of a mouthbrooding Malawian cichlid, Melanochromis johanni. Unpublished honors thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, 53 pp. download full text
Mapila, S.A., K. Nyiranda, and E.M. Makawa. 1998. A guide to the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act, 1997. Fisheries Bulletin 36. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department.
Markert, J.A. 1998. Population structure and phylogenetic history of the Lake Malawi cichlid species flock. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Hampshire, Durham. popup abstract
Markert, J.A., and M.E. Arnegard. 2007. Size-dependent use of territorial space by a rock-dwelling cichlid fish. Oecologia 154 (3): 611-621. Abstract
Markert, J.A., M.E. Arnegard, P.D. Danley, and T.D. Kocher. 1999. Biogeography and population genetics of the Lake Malawi cichlid Melanochromis auratus: habitat transience, philopatry and speciation. Molecular Ecology 8: 1013-1026. popup abstract download full text
Markert, J.A., P.D. Danley, and M.E. Arnegard. 2001. New markers for new species: microsatellite loci and the East African cichlids. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16 (2): 100-107. Abstract download full text
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Marsh, A.C. 1981. A contribution to the ecology and systematics of the genus Petrotilapia (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Lake Malawi. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Rhodes University, South Africa.
Marsh, A.C. 1983. A taxonomic study of the fish genus Petrotilapia (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Number 48: 1-14. [P. genalutea, P. nigra] popup abstract download full text
Marsh, B.A., A.C. Marsh, and A.J. Ribbink. 1986. Reproductive seasonality in a group of rock-frequenting cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi. Journal of Zoology 209: 9-20.
Marsh, A.C., and A.J. Ribbink. 1981. A comparison of the abilities of three species of Petrotilapia (Cichlidae, Lake Malawi) to penetrate deep water. Environmental Biology of Fishes 6: 367-369. Abstract
Marsh, A.C., and A.J. Ribbink. 1985. Feeding-site utilization in three sympatric species of Petrotilapia (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 25: 331-338. Abstract
Marsh, A.C., and A.J. Ribbink. 1986. Feeding schools among Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 15 (1): 75-79. Abstract
Marsh, A.C., A.J. Ribbink, and B.A. Marsh. 1981. Sibling species complexes in sympatric populations of Petrotilapia Trewavas (Cichlidae, Lake Malawi). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 71 (3): 253-264. Abstract
Marshall, B. 2011. The fishes of Zimbabwe and their biology. Smithiana Monograph 3: vi + 290 pp. ISBN 978-0-620-47535-8 [Another book including Lake Malawi in the distribution of Tilapia sparrmanii (p. 235), without documentation]
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Martens, K. 1990. Revision of African Limnocythere s.s. Brady, 1867 (Crustacea, Ostracoda) with special reference to the Eastern Rift Valley lakes: morphology, taxonomy, evolution and (palaeo)ecology. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Ergebnisse der Limnologie 83: 453-524. [Includes description of L. jocquei, endemic to Lake Malawi]
Martens, K. 1994. Ostracod speciation in ancient lakes: a review. Pp. 203-222 in: Martens K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.). Speciation in ancient lakes. Advances in Limnology 44.
Martens, K. 1997. Speciation in ancient lakes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12 (5): 177-182. popup abstract
Martens, K. 2003. On the evolution of Gomphocythere (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in Lake Nyassa/Malawi (East Africa), with the description of 5 new species. Hydrobiologia 497: 121-144. Abstract [The new species are: G. emrysi, G. irvinei, G. huwi, G. lisae, and G. piriformis. They are considered to constitute an endemic species flock]
Martens, K., G. Coulter, and B. Goddeeris. 1994. Speciation in ancient lakes - 40 years after Brooks. Pp. 75-96 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (editors). 1994. Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1. Publisher's blurb with table of contents
Martens, K., and I. Schön. 1999. Crustacean biodiversity in ancient lakes: a review. Pp. 899-910 in: Danielopol, D.L., and K. Martens (eds.). Crustacean biodiversity in subterranean, ancient/deep lakes and deep-sea habitats. Crustaceana 72 (8).
Martens, K., K. Wouters, G. Mazepova, and I. Schön. 2001. Geniation and the genus concept in ancient lakes. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 27: 2640-2641.
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Martin, C.H. 2010. Unexploited females and unreliable signals of male quality in a Malawi cichlid bower polymorphism. Behavioral Ecology 21: 1195-1202. doi:10.1093/beheco/arq126 Abstract download full text
Martin, C.H. 2012. Weak disruptive selection and incomplete phenotypic divergence in two classic examples of sympatric speciation: Cameroon crater lake cichlids. American Naturalist [epub 24 Aug 2012 ahead of print]. [In Barombi Mbo Stomatepia and Ejagham Tilapia spp.] Abstract download full text
Martin, C.H., and M.J. Genner. 2009a. High niche overlap between two successfully coexisting pairs of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66: 579-588. download full text and Supplemental material [Species studied were Metriaclima (or Maylandia) zebra, M. callainos, Tropheops sp. "red cheek", and T. tropheops]
Martin, C.H., and M.J. Genner. 2009b. A role for male bower size as an intrasexual signal in a Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Behaviour 146 (7): 963-978. Abstract download full text [Studied in Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus]
Martin, J.W., and G.E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Contributions in Science, No. 39, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. viii + 124 pages. download full text
Martin, P., and N. Giani. 1995. Two new species of Epirodrilus (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) from Lake Nyasa and Tanganyika (East Africa), with redescriptions of E. slovenicus and E. michaelseni. Zoologica Scripta 24 (1): 13-19. [The Nyasa species is E. mammosus, type locality Itungi Port, Tanganyika]
Martin, P., L.Z. Granina, K. Martens, and B. Goddeeris. 1998a. Oxygen concentration profiles in sediments of two ancient lakes: Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) and Lake Malawi (East Africa). Hydrobiologia 367: 163-174.
Abstract
Martin, P., L. Granina, K. Martens, and B. Goddeeris. 1998b. Sediment oxygen penetration depths in ancient lakes: a comparison between Lake Baikal (Siberia) and Lake Malawi (East Africa). Page 73 in: XXVII SIL Congress [SIL= International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology (Societas Internationalis Limnologiae Theoreticae et Applicatae): Book of Abstracts; Aug. 8-14 1998; Dublin, Ireland: Brunswick Press Limited.
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Maruyama, A., B. Rusuwa, and M. Yuma. 2010. Asymmetric interspecific territorial competition over food resources amongst Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. African Zoology 45 (1): 24-31. doi:10.3377/004.045.0116 Abstract download full text
Maruyama, A., R. Zatha, and B. Rusuwa. 2014. Weight-length relationships for twelve cichlid species from Lake Malawi, Africa. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2 (1): 124-127. download full text [Species studied: Hemitilapia oxyrhyncha, Labeotropheus fuelleborni, L. trewavasae, Maylandia callainos, M. livingstonii, Petrotilapia genalutea, P. nigra, Protomelas taeniolatus, Tropheops romandi, T. 'red cheek', T. tropheops, Tyrannochromis macrostoma]
Massinga, A.V.R. 1988. Some considerations for a catch assessment survey in Lake Niassa/Malawi - Mozambique. Pp. 109-137 in: Report of SADCC Fisheries Statistics Workshop, Zambia - 25-29 April 1988.
Massinga, A.V.R. 1990. River impact on the cyprinid fishery of the Mozambican side of Lake Nyasa/Malawi, with particular reference to the genera [sic] Opsaridium, and the importance of long-term data collection. In: Fisheries of the African Great Lakes, research papers presented at the International Symposium on Resource Use and Conservation of the African Great Lakes, hosted by the University of Burundi, Bujumbura, 29 November- 2 December 1989. International Agricultural Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Fisheries and Aquaculture Unit, Occasional Paper No. 3, 96-108.
Mayer, W.E., H. Tichy, and J. Klein. 1998. Phylogeny of African cichlid fishes as revealed by molecular markers. Heredity 80 (6): 702-714. Abstract
Mazzuchelli, J., T.D. Kocher, F. Yang, and C. Martins. 2012. Integrating cytogenetics and genomics in comparative evolutionary studies of cichlid fish. BMC Genomics 13: 463, 14 pp. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-463 Abstract download full text [Includes Lake Malawi species Metriaclima (=Maylandia) lombardoi and Labeotropheus trewavasae]
Mbanefo, S. 1992. Lake Malawi National Park. Our Living World (July): 10-11.
Mbomba, N.V. 1983. Comparative morphology of the feeding apparatus in cichlidian algal feeders of Lake Tanganyika. African Study Monographs 3: 1-23. download full text
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McCracken, J. 1987. Fishing and the colonial economy: The case of Malawi. Paper presented at Colloquium on the exploitation of animals in Africa. University of Aberdeen, 23-24 March 1987. Journal of African History 28: 413-429.
McCullough, G.K., and D. Barber. 2007. The effect of suspended solids loading from the Linthipe River on light in Lake Malawi. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33 (2): 466-482. Abstract
McCullough, G.K., D. Barber, and P.M. Cooley. 2007. The vertical distribution of runoff and its suspended load in Lake Malawi. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33 (2): 449-465. Abstract
McElroy, D.M. 1988. Reproductive behavior in cichlid fishes: Evaluation of the potential for sexual selection. Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Maine, 109 pp.
McElroy, D.M. 1992. Genetic and developmental analysis of trophic differentiation in two Lake Malawi cichlid fishes and their hybrids. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maine, Orono. [Pseudotroheus zebra, Labeotropheus fuelleborni] popup abstract
McElroy, D.M., and I. Kornfield. 1990. Sexual selection, reproductive behavior, and speciation in the mbuna species flock of Lake Malawi (Pisces: Cichlidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 28: 273-284. Abstract
McElroy, D.M., and I. Kornfield. 1993. Novel jaw morphology in hybrids between Pseudotropheus zebra and Labeotropheus fuelleborni (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1993 (4): 933-945. popup abstract
McElroy, D.M., I. Kornfield, and J. Everett. 1991. Coloration in African cichlids: Diversity and constraints in Lake Malawi endemics. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 41 (4): 250-268. popup abstract
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McHargue, L.R., A.J.T. Jull, and A. Cohen. 2011. Measurement of 10Be from Lake Malawi (Africa) drill core sediments and implications for geochronology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 110–119. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.012 Abstract
McKaye, K.R. 1981. Field observation on death feigning: a unique hunting behavior by the predatory cichlid, Haplochromis livingstoni, of Lake Malawi. Environmental Biology of Fishes 6 (3/4): 361-365. popup abstract
McKaye, K.R. 1983. Ecology and breeding behavior of a cichlid fish, Cyrtocara eucinostomus, on a large lek in Lake Malawi, Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 8: 81-96. Abstract
McKaye, K.R. 1985. Cichlid—catfish mutualistic defense of young in Lake Malawi, Africa. Oecologia 66: 358-363.
McKaye, K.R. 1986. Trophic eggs and parental foraging for young by the catfish Bagrus meridionalis of Lake Malawi, Africa. Oecologia 69 (3): 367-369.
McKaye, K.R. 1991. Sexual selection and the evolution of the cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, Africa. Pp. 241-257 in Keenleyside, M.H.A. (ed.), Cichlid fishes. Behaviour, ecology and evolution. Chapman & Hall, London.
McKaye, K.R., and W.N. Gray. 1984. Extrinsic barriers to gene flow in rock dwelling cichlids of Lake Malawi: Microhabitat heterogeneity and reef colonisation. Pp. 169-184 in: Evolution of Fish Species Flocks, eds. A.A. Echelle and I. Kornfield. University of Maine at Orono Press, Orono.
McKaye, K.R., J.H. Howard, J.R. Stauffer, Jr., R.P. Morgan, II, and F. Shonhiwa. 1993. Sexual selection and genetic relationships of a sibling species complex of bower building cichlids in Lake Malawi, Africa. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 40 (1): 15-21. popup abstract [The species complex discussed is in the genus Tramitichromis. Kornfield & Smith (2000: 183) point out that the observations that McKaye et al. considered supportive of female choice could be explained by the effects of male competition.]
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McKaye, K.R., and T. Kocher. 1983. Head ramming behaviour by three paedophagous cichlids in Lake Malawi, Africa. Animal Behaviour 31: 206-210 & Plates I & II. popup abstract download full text
McKaye, E.R. [sic], T. Kocher, P. Reinthal, and I. Kornfield. 1982. A sympatric sibling species complex of Petrotilapia Trewavas from Lake Malawi analysed by enzyme electrophoresis (Pisces: Cichlidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 76: 91-96. download full text
McKaye, K.R., T. Kocher, P. Reinthal, R. Harrison, and I. Kornfield. 1984. Genetic evidence for allopatric and sympatric differentiation among morphs of a Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Evolution 38: 215-219. download full text
McKaye, K.R., S.M. Louda, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1990. Bower size and male reproductive success in a cichlid fish lek. American Naturalist 135 (5): 597-613.
McKaye, K.R., and C. Mackenzie. 1982. Cyrtocara liemi, a previously undescribed paedophagous cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 95 (2): 398-402. popup abstract
McKaye, K.R., R.D. Makwinja, W.W. Menyani, and O.K. Mhone. 1985. On the possible introduction of nonindigenous zooplankton-feeding fishes into Lake Malawi, Africa. Biological Conservation 33: 289-307.
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McKaye, K.R., and A. Marsh. 1983. Food switching by two specialized algae-scraping cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi, Africa. Oecologia (Berlin) 56 (2-3): 245-248. popup abstract [The two species are Pseudotropheus zebra and Petrotilapia tridentiger.]
McKaye, K.R., D.E. Mughogho, and T.J. LoVullo. 1992. Formation of the selfish school. Environmental Biology of Fishes 35: 213-218. popup abstract
McKaye, K.R., D.E. Mughogho, and J.R. Stauffer. 1994. Sex-role differentiation in feeding and defense of young by a biparental catfish, Bagrus meridionalis. Animal Behaviour 48 (3): 587-596. popup abstract
McKaye, K.R., and M.K. Oliver. 1980. Geometry of a selfish school: Defence of cichlid young by bagrid catfish in Lake Malawi, Africa. Animal Behaviour 28 (4): 1287 & Plate 1. download full text
McKaye, K.R., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986a. Description of a gold cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1986 (4): 870-875. [Pseudotropheus barlowi]
McKaye, K.R., and J.R. Stauffer. 1986b. Seasonality, depth and habitat distribution of breeding males of Oreochromis spp., "chambo", in Lake Malawi National Park. Journal of Fish Biology 33 (6): 825-834.
McKaye, K.R., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and S.M. Louda. 1986. Fish predation as a factor in the distribution of Lake Malawi gastropods. Experimental Biology 45 (4): 279-289. Abstract
McKaye, K.R., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., G.F. Turner, A. Konings, and T. Satu. 2001. Fishes, as well as birds, build bowers. Journal of Aquariculture and Aquatic Sciences 9: 121-133.
McKaye, K.R., and E.P. van den Berghe. 1996. Specialized egg feeding behavior by African and Central American cichlids. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 7 (2): 143-148.
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McKendrick, M. 2003. Infectious diseases and the returning traveller — experience from a regional infectious diseases unit over 20 years. Journal of Applied Microbiology 94: 25S-30S. [Another article noting that schistosomiasis is common in Lake Malawi (p. 28S)]
McMahan, C.D., P. Chakrabarty, J.S. Sparks, W.L. Smith, and M.P. Davis. 2013. Temporal patterns of diversification across global cichlid biodiversity (Acanthomorpha: Cichlidae). PLoS ONE 8 (8): e71162. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071162 Abstract download full text
Mdaihli, M., and S. Donda. 1991a. Fisherman entrepeneurs - a baseline survey. Chambo Fisheries Research Project. FI: DP/MLW: 86/013, Field Document, 11: 1-65.
Mdaihli, M., and S. Donda. 1991b. The economic status of crew members. Chambo Fisheries Research Project. FI: DP/MLW: 86/013, Field Document, 12: 1-18.
Mdaihli, M., and S. Donda. 1991c. The role of women in the Chambo fisheries of the south-east arm of Lake Malawi, the upper Shire River and Lake Malombe. Chambo Fisheries Research Project. FI: DP/MLW:86/013, Field Document, 13: 1-9.
Mdaihli, M., and S. Donda. 1992. Profitability of fishing in the south-east arm of Lake Malawi, the upper Shire River and Lake Malombe. Chambo Fisheries Research Project. FI: DP/MLW: 86/013, Field Document, 17: 1-20.
Mdaihli, M., M.M. Hara, and M.C. Banda. 1992. Fish marketing in Lake Malombe, the Upper Shire River and the south-east arm of Lake Malawi. Chambo Fisheries Research Project. FI: DP/MLW/86/013, Field Document, 16: 1-46.
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Meixner, M.J., C. Lüter, C. Eckert, V. Itskovich, D. Janussen, T. von Rintelen, A.V. Bohne, J.M. Meixner, and W.R. Hess. 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of freshwater sponges provide [sic] evidence for endemism and radiation in ancient lakes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45: 875-886. Abstract download full text
Mellor, D.T., C.M. Tarsiewicz, and R.C. Jordan. 2011. Female Maylandia zebra prefer victorious males. Journal of Fish Biology 78 (2): 680-687. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02884.x Abstract
Menz, A. 1993. In depth look at Livingstone's lake; Lake Malawi/Niassa. UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project; SADC Natural Resources Newsletter, no. 4: 7-9.
Menz, A. (ed.). 1995. The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. x + 386 pages. ISBN: 0 85954 432-X. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K. [Out of print]
Menz, A., A. Bulirani, and C.M. Goodwin. 1995. Acoustic estimation of fish biomass. Pp. 307-349 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Menz, A., and A.B. Thompson. 1995. Management report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Unpublished report to the governments of Malawi, Moçambique and Tanzania.
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Meyer, A. 1993a. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary processes in East African cichlid fishes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (8): 279-284. popup abstract download full text
Meyer, A. 1993b. Trophic polymorphisms in cichlid fish: Do they represent intermediate steps during sympatric speciation and explain their rapid adaptive radiation? Pages 257-266 in: Schröder, J.-H., J. Bauer, and M. Schartl (eds.). Trends in Ichthyology. GSF-Bericht 7/92. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
Meyer, A. 2005. Cichlid species flocks of the past and present. Heredity 95: 419-420. Abstract
Meyer, A., L.L. Knowles, and E. Verheyen. 1996. Widespread geographical distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes in rock-dwelling cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika. Molecular Ecology 5 (3): 341-350. Abstract
Meyer, A., T.D. Kocher, P. Basasibwaki, and A.C. Wilson. 1990. Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Nature (London) 347: 550-553. popup abstract download full text [With important implications for origin of the Lake Malawi flocks. See also following reference]
Meyer, A., T.D. Kocher, and A.C. Wilson. 1991. African fishes. Nature 350: 467-468. [Reply to Crapon de Caprona & Fritzsch's (1991) discussion of the preceding reference] download full text
Meyer, A., C. Montero, and A. Spreinat. 1994. Evolutionary history of the cichlid fish species flocks of the East African great lakes inferred from molecular phylogenetic data. Pp. 407-423 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Vol. 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1. popup abstract
Meyer, A., C.M. Montero, and A. Spreinat. 1996. Molecular phylogenetic inferences about the evolutionary history of the East African cichlid fish radiations. Pages 303-324 in: Johnson, T., and E. Odada (eds.), The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African lakes. IDEAL (International Decade of East African Lakes). Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Toronto.
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Meyer, B.S., and W. Salzburger. 2012. A novel primer set for multilocus phylogenetic inference in East African cichlid fishes. Molecular Ecology Resources [Epub 21 Jul 2012 ahead of print]. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0998.2012.03169.x Abstract
Meyer, M.K. 1987. The phylogenetic tree and its branching-phylogenetic relationships and branchpoints. Pp. 123-130 in: Klausewitz, W. (ed.). Contributions to the knowledge of the cichlid fishes of the genus Aulonocara of Lake Malawi (East-Africa). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 94.
Meyer, M.K., and W. Foerster. 1984. Un nouveau Pseudotropheus du lac Malawi avec des remarques sur le complexe Pseudotropheus-Melanochromis (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae). Revue Française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie 10 (4) 1983: 107-112. download full text [Pseudotropheus (Maylandia) new subgenus; P. (M.) greshakei n. sp. See note under Stauffer et al. (1997).]
Meyer, M.K., and O. Jakubus. 1987. Regressionsanalyse mit einem Vergleichsmodell, anhand von morphometrischen Messungen, kalkuliert mittels SRAPS. Pp. 63-122 in: Klausewitz, W. (ed.). Contributions to the knowledge of the cichlid fishes of the genus Aulonocara of Lake Malawi (East-Africa). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 94.
Meyer, M.K., and R. Riehl. 1985. Aulonocara baenschi n.sp. und Aulonocara stuartgranti n.sp., zwei neue Taxa aus der Familie Cichlidae vom Malawi-See (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae). Aquarien Atlas 2 (1): 836-846.
Meyer, M.K., R. Riehl, and H. Zetzsche. 1987. A revision of the cichlid fishes of the genus Aulonocara REGAN, 1922 from Lake Malawi, with descriptions of six new species (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae). Pages 7-53 in: Klausewitz, W. (ed.). Contributions to the knowledge of the cichlid fishes of the genus Aulonocara of Lake Malawi (East-Africa). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 94. popup abstract download full text [7 Mb; partial copy (minus tables?)] [New species: Aulonocara ethelwynnae, A. hansbaenschi, A. hueseri, A. korneliae, A. saulosi, A. steveni. Also makes taxonomic reassignments affecting the genera Trematocranus, Cyrtocara, and Lethrinops; see Abstract button for summary.]
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Meyer, M.K., and M. Schartl. 1984. Pseudotropheus (Maylandia) hajomaylandi n. sp., a new taxon from Lake Malawi. Revue Française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie 11 (2): 51-55. popup abstract
Michel, E. 1994. Why snails radiate: a review of gastropod evolution in long-lived lakes, both recent and fossil. Pp. 267-283 in: Martens, K., B. Gooderis, and G. Coulter, eds. Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1. download full text
Mikami, O.K., M. Kohda, and M. Kawata. 2004. A new hypothesis for species coexistence: male-male repulsion promotes coexistence of competing species. Population Ecology 46 (2): 213-217. doi:10.1007/s10144-004-0189-5 Abstract
Mims, M.C., C.D. Hulsey, B.M. Fitzpatrick, and J.T. Streelman. 2010. Geography disentangles introgression from ancestral polymorphism in Lake Malawi cichlids. Molecular Ecology (published online 8 Feb 2010 ahead of print). doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04529.x Abstract
Mitchell, D.S. 1978. Freshwater plants. Pp. 1113-1138 in: Werger, M.J.A., and A.C. van Bruggen (eds.). Biogeography and ecology of southern Africa. W. Junk, The Hague.
Mkanda, F.X. 2001. Farmers' survival strategies and soil erosion in the Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa Basin - in the context of biodiversity conservation in the lake; the case of Linthipe River catchment. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 272 pp. popup abstract
Mkanda, F.X. 2002. Contribution by farmers' survival strategies to soil erosion in the Linthipe River Catchment: Implications for biodiversity conservation in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Biodiversity and Conservation 11 (8): 1327-1359. popup abstract
Mkanda, F., and D.G. Barber. 1999. Soil erosion and sedimentation potential in the Linthipe watershed, Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Pp.?? in Ribbink, A.J., and A.C. Ribbink (eds), SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Biodiversity Conservation Project, Extended Abstracts: I. Senga Bay Conference, II. Ncheni Project Workshop, SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project, Senga Bay, Malawi.
MKoko, B.J. 1996. Directory of fisheries and aquaculture professionals in the SADC region. Malawi: SADC. ISBN: 99908-46-00-6.
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Moehl, J.F., Jr. 1990. Sub-sector analysis: fisheries review and programming in Malawi (draft), 64 pp.
Monteiro, M.I. 1960. Contribuição para o estudo das diatomaceas do lago Niassa (Moçambique). Estudos, Ensaios e Documentos, No. 72. [Publisher: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, Lisboa. Now called Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Lisboa]
Monteiro, M.I. 1963. Segunda contribuição para o estudo das diatomáceas do Lago Niassa (Moçambique). Estudos, Ensaios e Documentos, No. 106: 108 pp. Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, Lisboa. [Coscinodiscaceae; Pennales]
Moran, P. 1993. Molecular systematics, speciation, and radiation in the haplochromine cichlid fish species flock of Lake Malawi, East Africa (mbuna species). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maine. popup abstract
Moran, P., and I. Kornfield. 1993. Retention of an ancestral polymorphism in the mbuna species flock (Teleostei: Cichlidae) of Lake Malawi. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 (5): 1015-1029. popup abstract download full text
Moran, P., and I. Kornfield. 1995. Were population bottlenecks associated with the radiation of the mbuna species flock (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Lake Malawi? Molecular Biology and Evolution 12 (6): 1085-1093. popup abstract download full text
Moran, P., I. Kornfield, and P. Reinthal. 1994. Molecular systematics and radiation of the haplochromine cichlids (Teleostei: Perciformes) of Lake Malawi. Copeia 1994: 274-288. popup abstract download full text [The authors make the startling assertion, based on mtDNA RFLP evidence, that Alticorpus, Aulonocara, and Lethrinops spp. are actually members of the Mbuna flock! See note under Takahashi et al. (1998).]
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Morioka, S. 2002. Otolith features and growth of juvenile Opsaridium microcephalum (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from the southwestern shoreline of Lake Malawi. African Zoology 37 (2): 165-170. popup abstract
Morioka, S., M. Futagawa, and P.B. Kataya. 2001. Preliminary study on otolith daily increment formation of lake salmon Opsaridium microlepis (Cyprinidae) juveniles in Malawi. Suisan-Zoshoku 49 (4): 509-510.
Morioka, S., and E. Kaunda. 2003. Preliminary examination on lapillus utility for otolith increment analysis in Malawian cyprinid Engraulicypris sardella. Ichthyological Research 50 (3): 284-287. popup abstract
Morioka, S., and E. Kaunda. 2004. Preliminary examination of the growth of mpasa, Opsaridium microlepis (Günther, 1864) (Teleostomi: Cyprinidae), younger than one year old, collected from Lake Malawi. African Zoology 39 (1): 13-18. popup abstract
Morioka, S., and E. Kaunda. 2005. Preliminary examination of hatching season and growth of Engraulicypris sardella (Pisces: Cyprinidae) larvae and juveniles in Lake Malawi. African Zoology 40 (1): 9–14. download full text
Morioka, S., and S. Matsumoto. 2003. Otolith features and utility of lapillus for daily increment analysis in Opsaridium microcephalum (Cyprinidae) juveniles collected from Lake Malawi. Ichthyological Research 50 (1): 82-85. popup abstract
Morioka, S., and S. Matsumoto. 2007. Otolith development and daily increment formation in larvae of the Kabyabya, a Malawian cyprinid, Opsaridium tweddleorum. Ichthyological Research 54: 44-48. Abstract download full text
Morioka, S., and S. Matsumoto. 2008. A note on the hatching period and growth in juvenile Brycinus imberi (Pisces: Alestiidae) in the shallow habitats of Lake Malawi. African Journal of Ecology 46 (4): 690-692. [No abstract]
Morioka, S., S. Matsumoto, and E. Kaunda. 2006. Otolith features and growth of Malawian characid Hemigrammopetersius barnardi from the southwestern coast of Lake Malawi. Ichthyological Research 53 (2): 143-147. Abstract
Morioka, S., and D. Sikawa. 2001. Feeding habit and development of feeding- related morphological characters in Oreochromis shiranus (Boulenger, 1896) larvae and juveniles in Malawi. Pp. 215-219 in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (Eds). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001, Capital Hotel, Lilongwe. National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP), Monkey Bay. 272 pp. popup abstract
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Morley, J.I., and S. Balshine. 2003. Reproductive biology of Eretmodus cyanostictus, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika. Environmental Biology of Fishes 66 (2): 169-179. popup abstract
Mota-Velasco, J.C., I.A. Ferreira, M.B. Cioffi, K. Ocalewicz, R. Campos-Ramos, A. Shirak, B.Y. Lee, C. Martins, and D.J. Penman. 2010. Characterisation of the chromosome fusions in Oreochromis karongae. Chromosome Research 18 (5): 575-86. doi:10.1007/s10577-010-9141-z Abstract
Msiska, O.V. 1990. Reproductive strategies of two cyprinid fishes in Lake Malawi and their relevance for aquaculture development. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 21: 67-75.
Msiska, O.V. 1991. A synoptic review of the biology and culture of Oreochromis shiranus shiranus and Oreochromis shiranus chilwae. Malawi Government.
Msiska, O.V. 1999. Reproductive biology and growth of Oreochromis (Nyasalapia) karongae in ponds and open water in Malawi. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Malawi. popup abstract
Msiska, O.V. 2001. A review of the limnology of Malawi. Pp. 121-189 in: Wetzel, R.G., and B. Gopal (eds.). Limnology in developing countries 3. Societas Internationalis Limnologiae.
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Msiska, O.V. 2002. The histology of mature gonads of Oreochromis (Nyasalapia) karongae (Trewavas). African Journal of Ecology 40 (2): 164-171. popup abstract
Msiska, O.V., and B.A. Costa-Pierce. 1996. Growth performance of Oreochromis lidole, O. squamipinnis, O. shiranus and O. karongae, new species for aquaculture in open waters and fish ponds in Malawi. Pages 129-134 in: R.S.V. Pullin et al. (eds.). Third International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 41. ix + 575 pp.
Msiska, O.V., and B.A. Costa-Pierce. 1999. Maturity and gonad changes of Oreochromis (Nyasalapia) karongae raised in fish ponds in Malawi. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15 (3): 97-103.
Msosa, W. 1999. Fishery culture and origins of the Tonga people of Lake Malawi. Pp. 271-280 in: Kawanabe, H., G.W. Coulter, and A.C. Roosevelt (eds.). Ancient lakes: Their cultural and biological diversity. Kenobi Productions, Ghent, Belgium. Publisher's blurb
Msukwa, A.V. 1997. The potential role of Lake Malawi National Park sanctuary areas for biological control of schistosomiasis and development of a sustainable fishery. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Rhodes University, xii + 136 pp. Abstract download full text
Msukwa, A.V., and A.J. Ribbink. 1998. The potential role of sanctuary areas for biological control of schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi National Park. Pp. 305-317 in: Madsen, H., C.C. Appleton, and M. Chimbari (eds.). Proceedings of workshop on medical malacology in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, September 22-26, 1997. Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Danida. xiv + 372 pp. [Discusses role of Trematocranus placodon in potential control of molluscan hosts of schistosomes]
Müller, O. 1903. Bacillariaceen aus dem Nyassaland und einigen benachbarten Gebieten. Erste Folge. Englers botanische Jahrbuch 34: 9-38.
Müller, O. 1904. Bacillariaceen aus dem Nyassaland und einigen benachbarten Gebieten. Zweite Folge. Englers botanische Jahrbuch 34: 255-301.
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Müller, O. 1905. Bacillariaceen aus dem Nyassaland und einigen benachbarten Gebieten. Dritte Folge. Englers botanische Jahrbuch 36: 137-205.
Müller, O. 1910. Bacillariaceen aus dem Nyassaland und einigen benachbarten Gebieten. Vierte Folge. Englers botanische Jahrbuch 45: 69-122.
Mumba, P.P., J.W. Banda, E. Kaunda, C. Ndamala, and G. Ghambi. 2001. Bioaccumulation of selected inorganic substances in the tissue of Oreochromis shiranus from Bunda Dam, Malawi. African Journal of Aquatic Science 26 (1): 45-48. Abstract
Mumba, P.P., and M. Jose. 2005. Nutrient composition of selected fresh and processed fish species from lake Malawi: a nutritional possibility for people living with HIV/AIDS. International Journal of Consumer Studies 29 (1): 72. Abstract [Fishes studied: Copadichromis inornatus, Rhamphochromis ferox, Engraulicypris sardella, and Oreochromis lidole]
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Munthali, S.M. 1994. Protected areas and people: sustaining Lake Malawi's ecology. Report to the Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Malawi, 36 pp.
Munthali, S.M. 1996. Territoriality and nutritional condition in Cynotilapia afra (Günther) and Pseudotropheus zebra (Boulenger), Cichlidae in Lake Malawi National Park, Malawi. Journal of Applied Ichthyology - Zeitschrift für Angewandte Ichthyologie 12 (2): 131-134. popup abstract
Munthali, S.M. 1997. Dwindling food-fish species and fishers' preference: problems of conserving Lake Malawi's biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 6 (2): 253-261. doi:10.1023/A:1018396120503 Abstract
Munthali, S.M., and A.J. Ribbink. 1998. Condition and fecundity of translocated rock-dwelling cichlid fish in Lake Malawi. Journal of Zoology 244: 347-355. popup abstract
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Murray, A.M. 2001a. The oldest fossil cichlids (Teleostei: Perciformes): indication of a 45 million-year-old species flock. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 269: 679-684. doi:10.1098/rspb.2000.1570 Abstract
Murray, A.M. 2001b. The fossil record and biogeography of the Cichlidae (Actinopterygii: Labroidei). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74 (4): 517-532. popup abstract
Murray, B.W., P. Nilsson, Z. Zaleska-Rutczynska, H. Sültmann, and J. Klein. 2000. Linkage relationships and haplotype variation of the major histocompatibility complex class I A genes in the cichlid fish Oreochromis niloticus. Marine Biotechnology 2 (5): 437-448. popup abstract
Murray, B.W., S. Shintani, H. Sültmann, and J. Klein. 2000. Major histocompatibility complex class II A genes in cichlid fishes: identification, expression, linkage relationships, and haplotype variation. Immunogenetics 51 (7): 576-586. popup abstract
Murray, B.W., H. Sültmann, and J. Klein. 1999. New family of Mhc class II A genes identified from cDNA sequences in the cichlid fish Aulonocara hansbaenschi. Immunogenetics 49 (6): 544-548.
Muschick, M., A. Indermaur, and W. Salzburger. 2012. Convergent evolution within an adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes. Current Biology 22 (24): 2362-2368. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.10.048 Abstract
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Mwakiyongo, K.R. 2002. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of the KARONGA AREA of Lake Malawi, 1980-2000. Fisheries Bulletin 53, 36 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (557 Kb)
Mwanja, W.W. 2004. The role of satellite water bodies in the evolution and conservation of Lake Victoria Region fishes. African Journal of Ecology 42 (Suppl. 1): 14-20. Abstract
Mwichande, B., M.J. Kingdon, H.A. Bootsma, J. Mwita, and R.E. Hecky. 1999. The quality of river water flowing into Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Pp. 82-83 in Ribbink, A.J., and A.C. Ribbink (eds), SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Biodiversity Conservation Project, Extended Abstracts: I. Senga Bay Conference, II. Ncheni Project Workshop, SADC/GEF Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project, Senga Bay, Malawi.
Myers, G.S. 1960. Fish evolution in Lake Nyasa. Evolution 14: 394-396. [A reply to Fryer (1959b); see response by Fryer (1960).]
  Nagl, S., H. Tichy, W.E. Mayer, I.E. Samonte, B.J. McAndrew, and J. Klein. 2001. Classification and phylogenetic relationships of african tilapiine fishes inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20 (3, September): 361-374. Abstract [Includes Oreochromis karongae, a L. Malawi endemic; and Tilapia rendalli (a widely distributed species occurring in L. Malawi)]
Nagl, S., H. Tichy, W.E. Mayer, N. Takahata, and J. Klein. 1998. Persistence of neutral polymorphisms in Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 95 (24, November 24): 14238-14243. Abstract download full text PDF
Nagl, S., H. Tichy, W.E. Mayer, N. Takezaki, N. Takahata, and J. Klein. 2000. The origin and age of haplochromine fishes in Lake Victoria, East Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B - Biological Sciences 267 (1447): 1049-1061. popup abstract download full text
Naish, K.A., and A.J. Ribbink. 1990. A preliminary investigation of sex change in Pseudotropheus lombardoi (Pisces, Cichlidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 28 (1-4): 285-294. Abstract
Nakajima, R.T., D.C. Cabral-de-Mello, G.T. Valente, P.C. Venere, and C. Martins. 2012. Evolutionary dynamics of rRNA gene clusters in cichlid fish. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2012, 12: 198. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-198 Abstract download full text
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Nelissen, M.H.J. 1985a. Studie van de relatie tussen de communicatie en de dominantiehiërarchie als systemen die het sociaal gedrag ordenen, met Melanochromis auratus (Pisces, Cichlidae) als onderzoeksmodel. [A study of the relation between communication and dominance hierarchy as systems that order social life, with Melanochromis auratus (Pisces, Cichlidae) as a research model.] Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen (Belgium), 257 pp. popup abstract
Nelissen, M.H.J. 1985b. Structure of the dominance hierarchy and dominance determining "group factors" in Melanochromis auratus (Pisces, Cichlidae). Behaviour 94 (1-2): 85-107.
Nelissen, M.H.J. 1986. The development of a dominance hierarchy in Melanochromis auratus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Pp. 17-20 in: Crapon de Caprona, M.-D., and B. Fritzch (eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Cichlid Biology, Bielefeld, West Germany, 5-8 February 1986. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 251.
Nelissen, M.H.J. 1992. Does body size affect the ranking of a cichlid fish in a dominance hierarchy? Journal of Ethology 10 (2): 153-156. [Melanochromis auratus]
Nelissen, M.H.J., and S. Andries. 1988. Does previous experience affect the ranking of cichlid fish in a dominance hierarchy? Annales de la Société royale Zoologique de Belgique 118 (1): 41-50.
Nelissen, M.H.J., and S. Andries. 1989. Group recognition and previous experience in the dominance relations in Melanochromis auratus (Pisces, Cichlidae). Pp. 11-14 in: Crapon de Caprona, M.-D., and B. Fritzch (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Biology, Ecology and Conservation of Cichlids, Bielefeld, West Germany, 24-27 February 1988. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 257. popup abstract
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Ng'ang'a, P. 1988. Sedimentation off deltas and border faults in northern Lake Malawi: Evidence from high-resolution acoustic remote sensing and gravity cores. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, 93 pp.
Ngatunga, B.P. 2000. A taxonomic revision of the shallow-water species of the genera Lethrinops, Tramitichromis and Taeniolethrinops (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa (East Africa). Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Rhodes University, South Africa, 293 pp.
Ngatunga, B.P. 2001. The need to maintain maximum biodiversity in Lake Nyasa. Pp. 27-30 in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (Eds). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001, Capital Hotel, Lilongwe. National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP), Monkey Bay. 272 pp. popup abstract
Ngatunga, B.P., and E.H. Allison. 1996. Food consumption/biomass ratios of the pelagic fish community of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Naga 19 (4): 36-42. [Naga: the ICLARM quarterly. Manila: International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. ISSN: 0116-290X.] popup abstract
Ngatunga, B.P., and J. Snoeks. 2003. Lethrinops turneri, a new shallow-water haplochromine cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Lake Malawi basin. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 14 (2): 127-136. popup abstract
Ngereza, C., C.N. Lange, E. Kaunda, Z. Magombo, D. Kahwa, and A. Mailosi. 2004. Gabbiella stanleyi. 2006 IUCN Red List of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org Downloaded on 22 August 2007. download full text [A snail species endemic to Lake Malawi, not known to be threatened]
Ngochera, M.J.R. 2001. Status of the small scale fishery in Malawi. Pages 95-104 in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (eds.). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001. Government of Malawi.
Ngochera, M.J., and H. Bootsma. 2011. Temporal trends of phytoplankton and zooplankton stable isotope composition in tropical Lake Malawi. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (Suppl. 1): 45-53. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.09.004 Commentary Abstract
Ngochera, M., W. Namoto, and O.C. Mponda. 2001. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Lake Chiuta 1976-1999. Fisheries Bulletin 51, 20 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (580 Kb)
Ng’oma, E., S. Valdesalici, K. Reichwald, and A. Cellerino. 2013. Genetic and morphological studies of Nothobranchius (Cyprinodontiformes) from Malawi with description of Nothobranchius wattersi sp. nov. Journal of Fish Biology 82 (1): 165-188. doi:10.1111/jfb.12001 Abstract
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Nichols, J.T., and F.R. LaMonte. 1931. New cichlid fishes from Lake Nyasa. American Museum Novitates 451, 4 pp. [Haplochromis centropristoides (=Astatotilapia calliptera) and H. boultoni (=Champsochromis caeruleus, according to Eccles & Trewavas (1989)).] download full text
Nicholson, S.E. 1996. A review of climate dynamics and climate variability in eastern Africa. Pages 25-56 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Nicholson, S.E. 1998. Fluctuations of rift valley lakes Malawi and Chilwa during historical times: A synthesis of geological, archaeological and historical information. Pages 207-232 in: Lehman, J.T. (ed.). Environmental change and response in East African Lakes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht and Boston. download full text
Nicholson, S.E. 2000. The nature of rainfall variability over Africa on time scales of decades to millenia. Global and Planetary Change Letters 26: 137-158. download full text
Nicholson, S.E. 2001. Climatic and environmental change in Africa during the last two centuries. Climate Research 17: 123-144. download full text [Includes, in fig. 3, a plot of the variation in the level of Lake Malawi since the mid-19th century]
Nicolls, D.J., L.H. Weld, E. Schwartz, C. Reed, F. von Sonnenburg, D.O. Freedman, and P.E. Kozarsky for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. 2008. Characteristics of schistosomiasis in travelers reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network 1997-2008. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79 (5): 729-734. Abstract
Nikaido, M., T. Ota, T. Hirata, H. Suzuki, Y. Satta, M. Aibara, S.I. Mzighani, C. Sturmbauer, K. Hagino-Yamagishi, and N. Okada. 2014. Multiple episodic evolution events in V1R receptor genes of East-African cichlids. Genome Biology and Evolution 6 (5): 1135-1144. doi:10.1093/gbe/evu086 Abstract download full text [In Lake Tanganyika]
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Njaya, F.J. 2001. Fish marketing in Malawi. Unpublished study report submitted to FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome).
Njaya, F., and S. Chimatiro. 1999. Technology strategies for the fisheries and fish farming sustainable livelihoods systems in Malawi. Discussion paper, November 1999. Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre (MIRTDC)/UNDP Sustainable Livelihoods Programme, Lilongwe, Malawi.
Njaya, F., D. Jamu, E.K.W. Kaunda, and A. Ford. [2005]. Culture-based production systems: Options for the Chambo in Lake Malawi and Lake Malombe. Pp. 64-68 in: The Chambo restoration strategic plan. Working Papers number 37059, WorldFish Center. [re: Oreochromis spp. Citation is uncertain, constructed from information seen here] download full text
Noakes, D.G. 1994. Lifetime list of publications by Ethelwynn Trewavas. Environmental Biology of Fishes 41 (1-4): 51-54. First page
Noga, E.J. 1986. Diet-associated systemic granuloma in African cichlids. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189 (9): 1145-1148. [Nimbochromis ("Haplochromis") livingstonii, Melanochromis, Pseudotropheus elongatus]
Nongwa, G.M. 198?. An overview of fisheries resources and management policies in Malawi. Lilongwe: Fisheries Department. 48 pp.
Nsiku, E. 1999. Changes in the fisheries of Lake Malawi, 1976-1996: Ecosystem-based analysis. Unpublished abstract of Master of Science thesis, University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre, Vancouver. [Citation of year based on listing here.] Abstract
Nsiku, E. 2002. Exploration of management and conservation strategies for the multispecies fisheries of Lake Malawi using an ecosystem modelling approach. University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre Research Reports 10 (2): 54-67. popup abstract
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Nyambose, J. 1997. Report on preserving the future of Lake Malawi. [Possibly an unpublished report; no other details were given in the source citing this report, Maguza-Tembo (2002)]
Nyasulu, T., W. Namoto, and O.C. Mponda. 2001. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Lake Chilwa 1976-1999. Fisheries Bulletin 49, 22 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (2.4 Mb)
Nyirenda, J., M. Mwabumba, E. Kaunda, and J. Sales. 2000. Effect of substituting animal protein sources with soybean meal in diets of Oreochromis karongae (Trewavas 1941). ICLARM Quarterly 23 (4): 13-15. download full text
  Odada, E.O., and D.O. Olago (eds). 2002. The East African Great Lakes: Limnology, palaeolimnology and biodiversity. Advances in global change research, volume 12. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 598 pp. ISBN 1-4020-0772-8. Publisher's blurb with link to contents and contributors
Okada, N. 2005. [Looking for molecular basis of speciation in cichlids.] Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2005 (Dec.) 50 (16 Suppl): 2174-2180. [Review in Japanese; no abstract available]
O'Kelly, C.J., and T.A. Nerad. 1999. Malawimonas jakobiformis n. gen., n. sp. (Malawimonadidae n. fam.): a Jakoba-like heterotrophic nanoflagellate with discoidal mitochondrial cristae. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 46 (5): 522-531. Abstract Photos and text
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Olesen, J., J.W. Martin, and E.W. Roessler. 1996. External morphology of the male of Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird, 1859) (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Spinicaudata), with a comparison of male claspers among the Conchostraca and Cladocera and its bearing on phylogeny of the 'bivalved' Branchiopoda. Zoologica Scripta 25 (4): 291-316. Abstract [Includes detailed illustrations and discussion of Cyclestheria hislopi, a circumtropical, phylogenetically significant species occurring in Lake Malawi]
Oliver, M.K. 1970. Odyssey to Lake Malawi. The Aquarium [New Jersey]: March (vol. 3 no. 5), pp. 4-5, 68-78; April (vol 3 no. 6), pp. 6-7, 73-78; May (vol. 3 no. 7), pp. 6-7, 66-78. [The magazine's editor, Albert Klee, was responsible for the pompous title of my article, which I had submitted under the dry name "Potential aquarium fishes from Lake Malawi." In this series of articles for aquarists, I described my 1968 first visit to the Lake and argued that many of the cichlids of sandy shores and other habitats would make popular aquarium fishes, in addition to the few mbuna then available. In 1971, when I first met Peter and Henny Davies, then the aquarium fish exporters at the lake, they told me that they had thought only the mbuna would interest aquarists. They said that my article had persuaded them to start exporting other cichlids in addition to mbuna, and that they did prove highly popular — as they still are nearly 40 years later.]
Oliver, M.K. 1975. Labidochromis textilis, a new cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 88: 319-330. download full text (searchable 1.23 Mb file)
Oliver, M.K. 1977. Materials for a revision of the Lake Malawi haplochromine cichlid fishes with three lateral spots (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Unpublished M.A. thesis, Occidental College, Los Angeles, California, ix + 157 pp.
Oliver, M.K. 1979. Heterochromis multidens: The most plesiomorphic African cichlid fish? [Abstract.] American Zoologist 19: 892. download full text
Oliver, M.K. 1983. A cladistic analysis of the Cyrtocara livingstonii group (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. [Abstract.] Symposium on Evolution of Fish Species Flocks, A. Echelle, chair. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 63rd Annual Meeting, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, 19-24 June 1983. download full text
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Oliver, M.K. 1984. Systematics of African cichlid fishes: Determination of the most primitive taxon, and studies on the haplochromines of Lake Malawi (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, ix + 326 pp. popup abstract [Heterochromis multidens is the most phylogenetically primitive African cichlid.]
Oliver, M.K. 1989. [Descriptions of Exochochromis anagenys, Otopharynx brooksi, Otopharynx lithobates, and Placidochromis milomo, in Eccles & Trewavas (1989)]
Oliver, M.K. 2012
Hemitaeniochromis brachyrhynchus, a new species of cichlid fish from Lake Malawi, with comments on some other supposed members of the genus (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Zootaxa 3410: 35–50. [Open access] download full text
Oliver, M.K., and M.E. Arnegard. 2010. A new genus for Melanochromis labrosus, a problematic Lake Malawi cichlid with hypertrophied lips (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 21 (3): 209-232. Abstract download full text (4.5Mb, open access: may be freely distributed) [Description of Abactochromis new genus; includes critical assessment of the features supposed to characterize the mbuna, and a new key to the 13 mbuna genera]
Oliver, M.K., and P.V. Loiselle. 1972. A new genus and species of cichlid of the mbuna group (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 85: 309-320. [Iodotropheus sprengerae] download full text
Oliver, M.K., and K.R. McKaye. 1982. Floating islands: A means of fish dispersal in Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1982 (4): 748-754. popup abstract download full text (searchable 772 kb file)
Ono, H., C. O'hUigín, H. Tichy, and J. Klein. 1993. Major- histocompatibility-complex variation in two species of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10 (5): 1060-1072. Abstract download full text
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Oppen, M.J.H. van, C. Rico, J.C. Deutsch, G.F. Turner, & G.M. Hewitt. 1997. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the cichlid fish Pseudotropheus zebra. Molecular Ecology 6 (4): 387-388. download full text
Oppen, M.J.H. van, G.F. Turner, C. Rico, J.C. Deutsch, K.M. Ibrahim, R.L. Robinson, and G.M. Hewitt. 1997. Unusually fine-scale genetic structuring found in rapidly speciating Malawi cichlid fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 264 (1389): 1803-1812. doi:10.1098/rspb.1997.0248 popup abstract Abstract
Oppen, M.J.H. van, G.F. Turner, C. Rico, R.L. Robinson, J.C. Deutsch, M.J. Genner, and G.M. Hewitt. 1998. Assortative mating among rock-dwelling cichlid fishes supports high estimates of species richness from Lake Malawi. Molecular Ecology 7: 991-1001. popup abstract download full text
Oppen, M.J.H. van, C. Rico, G.F. Turner, and G.M. Hewitt. 2000. Extensive homoplasy, nonstepwise mutations, and shared ancestral polymorphism at a complex microsatellite locus in Lake Malawi cichlids. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17 (4): 489-498. Abstract download full text
O'Quin, C.T., A.C. Drilea, M.A. Conte, and T.D. Kocher. 2013. Mapping of pigmentation QTL on an anchored genome assembly of the cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra. BMC Genomics 2013 14 (1): 287. [Epub 27 Apr ahead of print] [Correctly, Maylandia zebra] doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-287 Abstract download full text
O'Quin, C.T., A.C. Drilea, R.B. Roberts, and T.D. Kocher. 2012. A small number of genes underlie male pigmentation traits in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Journal of Experimental Zoology B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 318 (3): 199-208. doi:10.1002/jez.b.22006 Abstract
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O'Quin, K.E., J.E. Schulte, Z. Patel, N. Kahn, Z. Naseer, H. Wang, M.A. Conte, and K.L. Carleton. 2012. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12: 251. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-251 Abstract download full text [Studied in Aulonocara baenschi × Tramitichromis intermedius hybrids, and in the parent species]
O'Quin, K.E., D. Smith, Z. Naseer, J. Schulte, S.D. Engel, Y.-H.E. Loh, J.T. Streelman, J.L. Boore, and K.L. Carleton. 2011. Divergence in cis-regulatory sequences surrounding the opsin gene arrays of African cichlid fishes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 120. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-120 Abstract download full text
O'Quin, K.E., A.R. Smith, A. Sharma, and K.L. Carleton. 2011. New evidence for the role of heterochrony in the repeated evolution of cichlid opsin expression. Evolution & Development 13 (2): 193-203. doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2011.00469.x Abstract
O'Reilly, C.M., S.R. Alin, P.-D. Plisnier, A.S. Cohen, and B.A. McKee. 2003. Climate change decreases aquatic ecosystem productivity of Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Nature 424: 766-768. Abstract
Ortiz-Barrientos, D., and L.H. Rieseberg. 2006. Speciation: Splitting when together. Heredity 97 (1): 2-3. download full text [A brief general article on sympatric speciation, with discussion of examples in palms and in Nicaraguan cichlids]
Ota, K., M. Aibara, M. Morita, S. Awata, M. Hori, and M. Kohda. 2012. Alternative reproductive tactics in the shell-brooding Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2012: 193235, 10 pp. doi:10.1155/2012/193235 Abstract download full text
Otu, M.K., P. Ramlal, P. Wilkinson, R.I. Hall, and R.E. Hecky. 2011. Paleolimnological evidence of the effects of recent cultural eutrophication during the last 200 years in Lake Malawi, East Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (Suppl. 1): 61-74. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.09.009 Abstract
Owen, J.B. 2005. Budding species — the driver in evolution. The Biologist 52 (3): 170-173. [journal of the Institute of Biology, London, ISSN 0006-3347. Article is a general discussion of sympatric speciation, with some mention of cichlids of Lake Malawi]
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Owen, R.B. 1989. Pelagic fisheries potential of Lake Malawi: Palaeolimnology and palaeoproductivity of Lake Malawi and its implications for fisheries management. Overseas Development Administration Project R4370, Reporting period from August 1987 to December 1989, 300 pp.
Owen, R.B., and R. Crossley. 1989. Rift structure and facies distribution in Lake Malawi. Pp. 415-428 in: Rosendahl, B.R., J.J.W. Rogers, and N.M. Rach (eds.). Rifting in Africa - Karoo to Recent. Journal of African Earth Sciences 8 (2/3/4).
Owen, R.B., and R. Crossley. 1992. Spatial and temporal distribution of diatoms in sediments of Lake Malawi, Central Africa, and ecological implications. Journal of Paleolimnology 7: 55-71. doi:10.1007/BF00197031 Abstract
Owen, R.B., R. Crossley, T.C. Johnson, D. Tweddle, I. Kornfield, S. Davison, D.H. Eccles, and D.E. Engstrom. 1990. Major low levels of Lake Malawi and their implications for speciation rates in cichlid fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London 240: 519-553. popup abstract
Owen, R.B., R.W. Renaut, and T.M. Williams. 1996. Characteristics and origins of laminated ferromanganese nodules from Lake Malawi, Central Africa. Pages 461-474 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
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  Paepke, H.-J., and L. Seegers. 1995. Friedrich Fülleborns Forschungen im Njassa-Land. Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift (DATZ), Sonderheft "Malawisee": 21-30. download full text
Pålsson, O.K., M.C. Banda, and A. Bulirani. 1999a. A review of biology, fisheries and population dynamics of chambo (Oreochromis spp. Cichlidae) in Lake Malawi and Malombe. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Bulletin No. 38.
Pålsson, O.K., M.C. Banda, and A. Bulirani. 1999b. Review of demersal monitoring surveys in southern Lake Malawi. Fisheries Bulletin 40, i+19 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (521 Kb)
Parenti, L.R. 1981. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 168 (4): 335-557. Abstract download full text
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Pariselle, A., and L. Euzet. 2009. Systematic revision of dactylogyridean parasites (Monogenea) from cichlid fishes in Africa, the Levant and Madagascar. Zoosystema 31 (4): 849-898. download full text [Includes treatment of Cichlidogyrus halli (Price & Kirk, 1967)]
Park, L.E., and A.S. Cohen. 2011. Paleoecological response of ostracods to early Late Pleistocene lake level changes in Lake Malawi, East Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1–4): 71–80. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.038 Abstract
Park, L.E., A.S. Cohen, K. Martens, and R. Bralek. 2003. The impact of taphonomic processes on interpreting paleoecologic changes in large lake ecosystems: ostracodes in Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. Journal of Paleolimnology 30 (2): 127-138. doi:10.1023/A:1025570032179 Abstract
Parker, A., and I. Kornfield. 1996. Polygynandry in Pseudotropheus zebra, a cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Environmental Biology of Fishes 47 (4): 345-352. popup abstract
Parker A., and I. Kornfield. 1997. Evolution of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the mbuna (Cichlidae) species flock of Lake Malawi, east Africa. Journal of Molecular Evolution 45 (1): 70-83. Abstract
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Parnell, N.F., C.D. Hulsey, and J.T. Streelman. 2008. Hybridization produces novelty when the mapping of form to function is many to one. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 122. Abstract download full text
Parnell, N.F., C.D. Hulsey, and J.T. Streelman. 2012. The genetic basis of a complex functional system. Evolution 66 (11): 3352-3366. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01688.x Abstract download full text
Parnell, N.F., and J.T. Streelman. 2011. The macroecology of rapid evolutionary radiation. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B, 278 (1717): 2486-2494. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1950 Abstract
Parnell, N.F., and J.T. Streelman. 2013. Genetic interactions controlling sex and color establish the potential for sexual conflict in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Heredity 110: 239-246. doi:10.1038/hdy.2012.73 Abstract
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Parry, J.W., K.L. Carleton, T. Spady, A. Carboo, D.M. Hunt, and J.K. Bowmaker. 2005. Mix and match color vision: tuning spectral sensitivity by differential opsin gene expression in Lake Malawi cichlids. Current Biology 15 (19): 1734-1739. Abstract
Parsons, K.J., W.J. Cooper, and R.C. Albertson. 2011. Modularity of the oral jaws is linked to repeated changes in the craniofacial shape of African cichlids. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2011, Article 641501: 1-10. doi:10.4061/2011/641501 Abstract
Parsons, K.J., E. Márquez, and R. C. Albertson. 2012. Constraint and opportunity: the genetic basis and evolution of modularity in the cichlid mandible. American Naturalist 2012 Jan; 179 (1): 64-78. [Epub 30 Nov 2011 ahead of print] doi:10.1086/663200 Abstract
Parsons, K.J., Y.H. Son, and R.C. Albertson. 2011. Hybridization promotes evolvability in African cichlids: connections between transgressive segregation and phenotypic integration. Evolutionary Biology 38 (3): 306–315. [Species studied: Labeotropheus fuelleborni & Tropheops "red cheek"] doi:10.1007/s11692-011-9126-7 Abstract
Parsons, K.J., A.T. Taylor, K.E. Powder, and R.C. Albertson. 2014. Wnt signalling underlies the evolution of new phenotypes and craniofacial variability in Lake Malawi cichlids. Nature Communications 5: 3629. doi:10.1038/ncomms4629 Abstract
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Patterson, G., R.E. Hecky, and E.J. Fee. 2000. Effect of hydrological cycles on planktonic primary production in Lake Malawi/Niassa. Pp. 421-430 in: Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe, eds. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, volume 31. Academic Press, London. popup abstract
Patterson, G., and O. Kachinjika. 1993. Effect of wind-induced mixing on the vertical distribution of nutrients and phytoplankton in Lake Malawi. Verhandlungen der Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 25: 872-876.
Patterson, G., and O. Kachinjika. 1995. Limnology and phytoplankton ecology. Pp. 1-67 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Patterson, G., M.J. Wooster, and C.B. Sear. 1995. Real-time monitoring of African aquatic resources using remote sensing: With special reference to Lake Malawi. Booklet, 21 pp. ISBN 0 85954 422-2. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K. popup abstract [Available from NRI's Publication Catalogue]
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Pauers, M.J. 2004. Naturally and sexually selected constraints on morphology, behavior, and coloration in the African cichlid genus Labeotropheus. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, ix + 116 pp., University of Wisconsin. popup abstract
Pauers, M.J. 2010. Species concepts, speciation, and taxonomic change in the Lake Malawi mbuna, with special reference to the genus Labeotropheus Ahl 1927 (Perciformes: Cichlidae). Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 20 (2): 187-202. doi:10.1007/s11160-009-9128-z Abstract download full text
Pauers, M.J. 2011. One fish, two fish, red fish, blue fish: geography, ecology, sympatry, and male coloration in the Lake Malawi cichlid genus Labeotropheus (Perciformes: Cichlidae). International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2011: 575469, 12 pp. doi:10.4061/2011/575469 Abstract download full text
Pauers, M.J., T.J. Ehlinger, and J.S. McKinnon. 2010. Female and male visually based mate preferences are consistent with reproductive isolation between populations of the Lake Malawi endemic Labeotropheus fuelleborni. Current Zoology 56 (1): 65-72. Abstract download full text
Pauers, M.J., J.M. Kapfer, C.E. Fendos, and C.S. Berg. 2008. Aggressive biases towards similarly coloured males in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Biological Letters 4 (2): 156-159. Abstract download full text [In Metriaclima (=Maylandia) mbenjii]
Pauers, M.J., J.S. McKinnon, and T.J. Ehlinger. 2004. Directional sexual selection on chroma and within-pattern colour contrast in Labeotropheus fuelleborni. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) B, Biology Letters 271 (Supplement 6): S444-S447. (First published online.) Abstract download full text
Paugy, D. 2010. An historical review of African freshwater ichthyology. Freshwater Reviews 3: 1-32. doi:10.4290/FRJ-3.1.1 Abstract
Pauly, D., T.O. Acere, and M. Vincke. 1990. On research for fisheries and aquaculture in southern Africa: Report of a mission to access [assess?] the fishery research needs of Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. 59 pp. [Unpublished report?]
Penkova, O.G., and N.G. Sheveleva. 2001. [Structure of zooplankton in rift lakes of the world.] Sibirskii-Ekologicheskii-Zhurnal 8 (1): 19-24.
Pereyra, R.T. 2004. Population structure, genetic diversity and dispersal of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 177 pp., University of East Anglia, U.K. popup abstract
Pereyra, R., M.I. Taylor, G.F. Turner, and C. Rico. 2004. Variation in habitat preference and population structure among three species of the Lake Malawi cichlid genus Protomelas. Molecular Ecology 13 (9): 2691-2697. Abstract download full text
Perrier, C., and A. Konings. 1998. Melanochromis heterochromis synonyme de M. vermivorus? Revue Française des Cichlidophiles (January) 175: 15-18.
Pesce, G.L. 1996. Towards a revision of Cyclopinae copepods (Crustacea, Cyclopidae). Fragmenta Entomologica 28: 189-200. download full text [Synonymizes Psammophilocyclops Fryer, 1956d with Goniocyclops Kiefer, 1955]
Top Peters, W. 1844. Einige neue Fische und Amphibien aus Angola und Mozambique. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin 32-37. [Nothobranchius orthonotus]
Peters, W. 1852. Diagnosen von neuen Flussfischen aus Mossambique. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin 275-276, 681-685. [Anguilla bengalensis labiata, Barbus trimaculatus, Brycinus imberi, Hippopotamyrus discorhynchus, Mormyrus longirostris]
Peters, W. 1854. Mittheilung über die Süsswasserfische von Mossambique. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin 783. [Barbus radiatus]
Peters, W. 1868. Naturwissenschaftliche Reise nach Mossambique auf befehl Seiner Mäjestat des Königs Friedrich Wilhelm IV in den jahren 1842 bis 1848 Ausgeführt. Zoologie. IV. Flussfische. Naturwissenschaft der Mossambique, viii + 116 pp. [Labeo cylindricus]
Pfeffer, G.J. 1896. Die Thierwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete. Lief. V. Die Fische Ost-Afrikas. Fische Ost-Afrikas i-xviii + 1-72. [Barbus innocens]
Philippart, J.C. 1995. Is captive breeding an effective solution for the preservation of endemic species? Biological Conservation 72 (2): 281-295. Abstract
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Phiri, P.M., R.K. Day, S. Chimatiro, M.P. Hill, M.J.W. Cock, M.G. Hill, and E. Nyando. 2001. Progress with biological control of water hyacinth in Malawi. download full text Pp. 47-52 in: Julien, M.H., M.P. Hill, T.D. Center, and D. Jianqing (eds.), Biological and integrated control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. ACIAR Proceedings 102. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. Publisher's blurb
Pierotti, M.E.R., M.E. Knight, S. Immler, N.J. Barson, G.F. Turner, and O. Seehausen. 2008. Individual variation in male mating preferences for female coloration in a polymorphic cichlid fish. Behavioral Ecology 19 (3): 483-488. Abstract download full text
Pierotti, M.E., J.A. Martín-Fernández, and O. Seehausen. Mapping individual variation in male mating preference space: multiple choice in a color polymorphic cichlid fish. Evolution 63 (9): 2372-2388. Abstract [In the Lake Victoria cichlid Neochromis omnicaeruleus]
Pierotti, M.E., and O. Seehausen. 2007. Male mating preferences pre-date the origin of a female trait polymorphism in an incipient species complex of Lake Victoria cichlids. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20 (1): 240-248. Abstract [In Neochromis omnicaeruleus]
Pilskaln, C.H. 2004. Seasonal and interannual particle export in an African Rift Valley Lake: A 5-year record from Lake Malawi, southern East Africa. Limnology and Oceanography 49 (4): 964-977. Abstract download full text
Pilskaln, C.H., and T.C. Johnson. 1991. Seasonal signals in Lake Malawi sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 36 (3): 544-557. download full text
Pinton, A., J.-F. Agnèse, D. Paugy, and O. Otero. 2013. A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (3): 1027-1040. [S. njassae included in the phylogeny] doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.12.009 Abstract
Plenderleith, M., C. van Oosterhout, R.R. Robinson, and G.F. Turner. 2005. Female preference for conspecific males based on olfactory cues in a Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Biology Letters 1: 411-414. Abstract download full text download full text
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Polder, A., M.B. Müller, J.L. Lyche, R.H. Mdegela, H.E. Nonga, F.P. Mabiki, T.J. Mbise, J.U. Skaare, M. Sandvik, E. Skjerve, and E. Lie. 2014. Levels and patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from four different lakes in Tanzania: Geographical differences and implications for human health. Science of The Total Environment 488-489: 252-260. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.085 Abstract
Poletto, A.B., I.A. Ferreira, D.C. Cabral-de-Mello, R.T. Nakajima, J. Mazzuchelli, H.B. Ribeiro, P.C. Venere, M. Nirchio, T.D. Kocher, and C. Martins. 2010. Chromosome differentiation patterns during cichlid fish evolution. BMC Genetics 11: 50. Abstract download full text [Includes information on chromosome number and/or karyotypes of a number of L. Malawi species]
Poletto, A.B., I.A. Ferreira, and C. Martins. 2010. The B chromosomes of the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens harbour 18S rRNA gene copies. BMC Genetics 11:1. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-1 download full text [A L. Victoria cichlid]
Poll, M. 1961.
Résultats scientifiques des missions zoologiques au Stanley Pool subsidiées par le cemubac (Université Libre de Bruxelles) et le Musée Royal du Congo Belge. V. Révision systématique et raciation géographique des Protopteridae de l'Afrique centrale. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 103: 3-50. [Protopterus annectens brieni]
Poll, M. 1971. Révision des Synodontis africains (famille Mochocidae). Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren) no. 191. [viii] + 497 pp. + 13 plates. [Upholds S. njassae Keilhack as a species distinct from S. zambesensis Boulenger (with which Boulenger had synonymized it); also notes that S. njassae is very similar, but not identical, to S. nigromaculatus Boulenger. In contrast to Poll's title, the family name is correctly spelled Mochokidae]
Pollen, A.A., A.P. Dobberfuhl, J. Scace, M.M. Igulu, S.C. Renn, C.A. Shumway, and H.A. Hofmann. 2007. Environmental complexity and social organization sculpt the brain in Lake Tanganyikan cichlid fish. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 70 (1): 21-39 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract [In the Ectodini]
Potasman, I.I., N. Pick, A. Abel, and M. Dan. 1996. Schistosomiasis acquired in Lake Malawi. Journal of Travel Medicine 3 (1): 32-36. Abstract
Powers, L. 2005. Calibration and application of a new paleotemperature tool in lacustrine systems: TEX86 for continental paleoclimate reconstruction. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, 92 pp. popup abstract
Powers, L.A., T.C. Johnson, J.P. Werne, I.S. Castañeda, E.C. Hopmans, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, and S. Schouten. 2010. Organic geochemical records of environmental variability in Lake Malawi during the last 700 years, Part I: The TEX86 temperature record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 133-139. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.09.006 Abstract
Price, C.E., and R.G. Kirk. 1967. First description of a monogenetic trematode from Malawi. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 76 (1-2): 137-144. [Cleidodiscus halli (now called Cichlidogyrus halli; see Pariselle & Euzet, 2009) described from Tilapia s. shirana from the upper Shire River]
Prudhoe, S. 1957. Trematoda. Exploration du Parc National de l'Upemba, 48: 1-28. Institut des Parcs Nationaux, Bruxelles. [Includes a record of metacercaria of Clinostomoides brieni Dollfus, 1950 (a digenean trematode) from Clarias sp. in L. Nyasa (L. Malawi), according to Bray et al. (2006: 44)]
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  Rafael, B.R. 1980. A short history of Malawi. Popular Publications, Limbe, Malawi, 120 pp. [A simple account of Malawi's history for Malawians, told from a necessarily pro-Banda viewpoint.]
Ramlal, P.S. 2002. Sources, transport and sinks of organic matter in Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria, East Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. popup abstract
Ramlal, P.S., R.E. Hecky, H.A. Bootsma, S.L. Schiff, and M.J. Kingdon. 2003. Sources and fluxes of organic carbon in Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (supplement 2): 107-120. Abstract
Ransford, O. 1966. Livingstone's lake. The drama of Nyasa. John Murray, London, x + 313 pp. [An excellent, readable account of the lake's history, and especially of the events leading to David Livingstone's rediscovery of it, albeit from a viewpoint supportive of continuing European involvement.]
Rashidi, B.B.A. (editor). 1997. The fisheries resource management and extension handbook. Department of Fisheries, Lilongwe, Malawi.
Redondo, T., and R. Medina. 1985. Sociospatial behaviour of Pseudotropheus tropheops Regan, 1921 in a new environment (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Conducta socioespacial frente a un ambiente nuevo de Pseudotropheus tropheops Regan, 1921 (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Miscellanea Zoologica 9: 273-285. Top
Regan, C.T. 1920. The classification of the fishes of the family Cichlidae.--I. The Tanganyika genera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 5: 33-53. [Mylochromis, Otopharynx] download full text
Regan, C.T. 1922a. The cichlid fishes of Lake Nyassa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1921: 675-727 & Plates I-VI. download full text
Regan, C.T. 1922b. The cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 92 (1922): 157-191 & Plates I-IV. [Substantive mentions of "Nyassa" cichlids in the introductory pages.] download full text
Regan, C.T. 1922c. The classification of the fishes of the family Cichlidae.--II. On African and Syrian genera not restricted to the Great Lakes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 10: 249-264. [Mentions several "Nyassa" cichlid species.] download full text download full text
Reid, G.M. 1985. A revision of African species of Labeo (Pisces: Cyprinidae) and a redefinition of the genus. J. Cramer, Braunschweig, Germany, 322 pp.
Reimlinger, M., R. Hoffmann, C. Pfeil Putzien, and P. Scheinert. 1990. Enrofloxacin, ein neues Therapeutikum für Zierfische. Tierärztliche Praxis 18 (6): 653-657. [Melanochromis johannii is one of the studied species]
Reinthal, P.N. 1987. Morphology, ecology, and behavior of a group of the rock-dwelling cichlid fishes (Pisces: Perciformes) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. popup abstract
Reinthal, P.N. [1990a]. The gross intestine morphology of a group of rock-dwelling cichlid fishes (Pisces, Teleostei) from Lake Malawi. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 39 (3-4) 1989: 208-225. popup abstract
Reinthal, P.N. 1990b. Morphological analyses of the neurocranium of a group of rock-dwelling cichlid fishes (Cichlidae: Perciformes) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 98: 123-139. popup abstract
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Reinthal, P.N. 1990c. The feeding habits of a group of herbivorous rock-dwelling cichlid fishes (Cichlidae, Perciformes) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 27 (3): 215-233. Abstract
Reinthal, P.N. 1990d. The living jewels of Lake Malawi. National Geographic (May): 42-51.
Reinthal, P. 1993. Evaluating biodiversity and conserving Lake Malawi cichlid fish fauna. Conservation Biology 7 (3): 712-718. popup abstract
Reinthal, P.N., A.S. Cohen, and D.L. Dettman. 2010. Fish fossils as paleo-indicators of ichthyofauna composition and climatic change in Lake Malawi, Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology [Epub 7 Jan 2010 ahead of print]. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.004 Abstract
Reinthal, P., and A. Meyer. 1997. Molecular phylogenetic tests of speciation models in African cichlid fishes. Pp. 375-390 in: Molecular phylogenetics of adaptive radiations. T. Givinish and K. Sytsma (editors). Cambridge University Press, Boston.
Renn, S.C.P., N. Aubin-Horth, and H.A. Hofmann. 2004. Biologically meaningful expression profiling across species using heterologous hybridization to a cDNA microarray. BMC Genomics 5 (1): 42. Epub 2004 Jul 06. Abstract download full text [ISSN 1471-2164, BioMed Central. The authors "constructed a cDNA microarray with ~4500 features from a brain-specific cDNA library for the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni" and made cross-species hybridization to other Lake Tanganyika cichlids including Enantiopus melanogenys and Neolamprologus brichardi, as well as other organisms]
Reynolds, C.S., S.N. Reynolds, I.F. Munawar, and M. Munawar. 2000. The regulation of phytoplankton population dynamics in the world's largest lakes. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 3 (1): 1-22. Abstract [Not specific to L. Malawi, but does mention L. Malawi; moreover, the principles surely apply]
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Ribbink, A.J. 1977. Cuckoo among Lake Malawi cichlid fish. Nature 267: 243-244.
Ribbink, A.J. 1981. The limitations imposed by swimbladders on vertical movement of cichlids. Buntbarsche Bulletin 87: 2-6. [Newsletter of the American Cichlid Association; this back issue may be available from ACA's online store]
Ribbink, A.J. 1984. Feeding behaviour of a cleaner and scale, skin and fin eater from Lake Malawi (Docimodus evelynae, Pisces, Cichlidae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 34 (2): 182-196.
Ribbink, A.J. 1986. The species concept, sibling species and speciation. Pp. 109-116 in: Crapon de Caprona, M.-D., and B. Fritzch (eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Cichlid Biology, Bielefeld, West Germany, 5-8 February 1986. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 251.
Ribbink, A.J. 1987. African lakes and their fishes - Conservation scenarios and suggestions. Environmental Biology of Fishes 19 (1): 3-26. Abstract
Ribbink, A.J. 1988. Evolution and speciation of African cichlids. Pp. 35-51 in: Lévêque, C., M.N. Bruton, and G.W. Ssentongo (eds.). Biologie et écologie des poissons d'eau douce Africains. Biology and ecology of African freshwater fishes. ORSTOM, Paris, Collection Travaux et Documents, 216.
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Ribbink, A.J. 1990. Alternative life-history styles of some African cichlid fishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 28: 87-100. popup abstract
Ribbink, A.J. 1991. Distribution and ecology of the cichlids of the African Great Lakes. Pp. 36-59 in: Keenleyside, M.H.A. (ed.). Cichlid fishes. Behaviour, ecology and evolution. Chapman & Hall, London.
Ribbink, A.J. 1994a. Lake Malawi. Pp. 27-33 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Vol. 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1. popup abstract
Ribbink, A.J. 1994b. Alternative perspectives on some controversial aspects of cichlid fish speciation. Pp. 101-125 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
Ribbink, A.J. 1994c. Rates and modes of speciation. Pp. 505-508 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
Ribbink, A.J. 1995. Peter Humphry Greenwood - Obituary. South African Journal of Science 91 (6): 284.
Ribbink, A.J. 1997a. A tribute to Peter Humphry Greenwood. South African Journal of Science 93 (11-12): 493-494. Top
Ribbink, A.J. 1999. Aspects of conservation and sustainable levels of use of Lake Malawi fishes. Pp. 203-215 in Kawanabe, H., G.W. Coulter, and A.C. Roosevelt (eds.), Ancient lakes: Their cultural and biological diversity. Kenobi Productions, Ghent. xii + 340 pages. ISBN 90-804341-2-4. Review
Ribbink, A.J., D.G. Barber, H.A. Bootsma, R.G. Brook, P.M. Cooley, R.E. Hecky, H.J. Kidd, H.J. Kling, G.K. McCullough, and F.X. Mkanda. 1998. Is the Lake Malawi/Nyasa basin caught in a Malthusian trap? Proceedings of the PARADI/FISA Conference, Spain, 1998.
Ribbink, A.J., D.G. Barber, H.A. Bootsma, R.G. Brook, P.M. Cooley, R.E. Hecky, H.J. Kidd, H.J. Kling, G.K. McCullough, and F.X. Mkanda. 2001. The Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa biodiversity conservation programme: science in a socio-economic context. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren) 288: 28-59.
Ribbink, A.J., and D.H. Eccles. 1988. Fish communities in the East African Great Lakes. Pp. 277-301 in: Lévêque, C., M.N. Bruton, and G.W. Ssentongo (eds.). Biologie et écologie des poissons d'eau douce Africains. Biology and ecology of African freshwater fishes. ORSTOM, Paris, Collection Travaux et Documents, 216. download full text
Ribbink, A.J. and D.S.C. Lewis. 1982. Melanochromis crabro sp. nov.: a cichlid fish from Lake Malawi which feeds on ectoparasites and catfish eggs. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 32 (1): 72-87.
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Ribbink, A.J., B.A. Marsh, A.C. Marsh, A.C. Ribbink, and B.J. Sharp. 1983. A preliminary survey of the cichlid fishes of rocky habitats in Lake Malawi. South African Journal of Zoology 18: 149-310. popup abstract [Indispensable study of mbuna populations and their ecology and geographic variation, particularly of Pseudotropheus. Also treats a few "haps." Includes 119 color photos, most taken underwater.]
Ribbink, A.J., A.C. Marsh, B. Marsh, and B.J. Sharp. 1980. Parental behaviour and mixed broods among cichlid fish of Lake Malawi. South African Journal of Zoology 15 (1): 1-6. popup abstract
Ribbink, A.J., A.C. Marsh, B. Marsh, and B.J. Sharp. 1983. The zoogeography, ecology and taxonomy of the genus Labeotropheus Ahl 1927 (Pisces: Cichlidae) of Lake Malawi. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 79 (3): 223-243. Abstract
Ribbink, A.J., and A.C. Ribbink. 1997. Paedophagia among cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria and Lake Malawi/Nyasa. South African Journal of Science 93 (11-12): 509-512. popup abstract
Ribbink, A.J., A.C. Ribbink, and P.H. Greenwood. 1990. Ethelwynn Trewavas - A continuing inspiration to scientists. South African Journal of Science 86 (5-6): 236.
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Ricardo-Bertram, C.K., H.J.H. Borley, and E. Trewavas. 1942. Report on the fish and fisheries of Lake Nyasa. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London; 181 pages. [Classic report with much detailed information available nowhere else. First author variably cited as Bertram, C.K.R.] Rice, A.N., and P.S. Lobel. 2002. Enzyme activities of pharyngeal jaw musculature in the cichlid Tramitichromis intermedius: implications for sound production in cichlid fishes. Journal of Experimental Biology 205 (Part 22): 3519-3523. Abstract
Rice, A.N., D.S. Portnoy, I.M. Kaatz, and P.S. Lobel. 2001. Differentiation of pharyngeal muscles on the basis of enzyme activities in the cichlid Tramitichromis intermedius. Biological Bulletin 201 (2): 258-260.
Richard, J., and P.F. Clark. 2005. Caridina nilotica (P. Roux, 1833) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae) from East Africa, with descriptions of four new species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 118 (4): 706-730. Abstract [Material from outside the Nile River catchment area "...requires clarification and probably belongs to other species of Caridina." C. nilotica has generally been thought to occur in Lake Malawi (e.g., by Fryer (1959a)]
Ricketts, R.D. 1998. A comparison between the stable isotopic composition of early Holocene and late Pleistocene carbonates from Lake Malawi, East Africa. Pages 191-206 in: Lehman, J.T. (ed.). Environmental change and response in East African Lakes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht and Boston.
Ricketts, R.D., and T.C. Johnson. 1996. Early Holocene changes in lake level and productivity in Lake Malawi as interpreted from oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of authigenic carbonates. Pages 475-494 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
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Rico, C., P. Bouteillon, M.J.H. van Oppen, M.E. Knight, G.M. Hewitt, and G.F. Turner. 2003. No evidence for parallel sympatric speciation in cichlid species of the genus Pseudotropheus from north-western Lake Malawi. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16 (1): 37-46. popup abstract download full text
Rico, C., and G.F. Turner. 2002. Extreme microallopatric divergence in a cichlid species from Lake Malawi. Molecular Ecology 11 (8): 1585-1590. [The cichlid is Pseudotropheus callainos] Abstract   download full text
Ripley, J.L., and P.S. Lobel. 2005. Reproductive behavior of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish, Tramitochromis intermedius. Environmental Biology of Fishes 73 (2): 171-180. doi:10.1007/s10641-004-5567-5 Abstract
Ripley, J.L., P.S. Lobel, and H.Y. Yan. 2002. Correlation of sound production with hearing sensitivity in the Lake Malawi cichlid Tramitichromis intermedius. Bioacoustics 12 (2-3): 238-240. download full text
Roberts, R.B., Y. Hu, R.C. Albertson, and T.D. Kocher. 2011. Craniofacial divergence and ongoing adaptation via the hedgehog pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 108 (32): 13194-13199. doi:10.1073/pnas.1018456108 Abstract
Roberts, R.B., J.R. Ser, and T.D. Kocher. 2009. Sexual conflict resolved by invasion of a novel sex determiner in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Science 326: 998-1001. Published online 1-Oct-2009; 10.1126/science.1174705. doi:10.1126/science.1174705 Abstract
Roberts, R.G., M. Storey, and M. Haslam. 2013. Toba supereruption: Age and impact on East African ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 110 (33): E3047. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308550110 Extract [See Lane et al., 2013, Lane et al., 2013a]
Robinson, R.L., and A.J. Ribbink. 1998. Abundance and seasonality of temporary cichlid breeding territories on a rocky shore in Lake Malawi. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 8 (4): 299-312.
Robinson, R.L., and G.F. Turner. 1990. Comparison of the social behavior of an endemic Lake Malawi cichlid in the field and laboratory. Journal of Fish Biology 36 (4): 615-616.
Robinson, R.L., and G.F. Turner. 1991. Laboratory experiments on feeding in Oreochromis lidole. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren) 262: 75-80.
Robinson, R.L., G.F. Turner, A.S. Grimm, and T.J. Pitcher. 1990. A comparison of the ingestion rates of three tilapia species fed on a small planktonic alga. Journal of Fish Biology 36: 269-270.
Robinson, R.L., G.F. Turner, A.S. Grimm, and T.J. Pitcher. 1995. An experimental study of phytoplankton feeding in 3 tilapiine cichlids. Journal of Fish Biology 46 (3): 449-456. popup abstract
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Ross, A.G.P., P.B. Bartley, A.C. Sleigh, G.R. Olds, Y. LI, G.M. Williams, and D.P. McManus. 2002. Schistosomiasis. The New England Journal of Medicine (18 April) 346 (16): 1212-1220. [An excellent, up-to-date review article. Notes that "Acute schistosomiasis is a problem for travelers, particularly those who visit Africa. Swimming in Lake Malawi, Lake Kariba, and the Zambezi River has been particularly problematic." For prophylaxis, the authors recommend the antimalarial drug artemether: "The prospects seem good for prophylaxis with artemether in high-risk groups in areas where schistosomiasis is endemic, such as flood relief workers, tourists, and fishermen."]
Rossiter, A. 1995. The cichlid fish assemblages of Lake Tanganyika: ecology, behaviour and evolution of its species flocks. Advances in Ecological Research 26: 187-252.
Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe (eds.). 2000. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 31. Academic Press, London. xlviii + 624 pp. ISBN 0-12-013931-6. Publisher's blurb Review by C. Goulden
Royes, J., D.J. Murie, and R.T. Francis-Floyd. 2006. Effects of varying dietary protein and lipid levels on growth performance and hepatocyte changes in juvenile African cichlids (Pseudotropheus socolofi and Haplochromis ahli). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 37 (1): 48-59. Abstract
Rozanski, K., L. Araguas-Araguas, and R. Gonfiantini. 1996. Isotope patterns of precipitation in the East African region. Pages 79-94 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
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Rüber, L., and D.C. Adams. 2001. Evolutionary convergence of body shape and trophic morphology in cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14 (2): 325-332. Abstract
Rüber, L., A. Meyer, C. Sturmbauer, and E. Verheyen. 2001. Population structure in two sympatric species of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Eretmodini: Evidence for introgression. Molecular Ecology 10 (5): 1207-1225. Abstract
Ruffing, R.A., A. Lambert, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 2006. Description of a new species of Petrotilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae), from Lake Malawi, Africa. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 119 (4): 534-539. [P. microgalana, type locality Nkhata Bay] Abstract
Rufli, H. 1982. Seasonal abundance and depth distribution of pelagic fish off Nkhata Bay. Pp. 117-137 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Rufli, H., and J. van Lissa. 1982. Age and growth of Engraulicypris sardella in Lake Malawi. Pp. 85-97 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Rufli, H., and J.A. Vitullo. 1982. Preliminary estimate of the abundance of pelagic fish stocks in Lake Malawi. Pp. 138-153 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Rupp, M.F., and C.D. Hulsey. 2014. Influence of substrate orientation on feeding kinematics and performance of algae grazing Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Journal of Experimental Biology [epub 19-Jun-2014 ahead of print]. doi:10.1242/jeb.105080 Abstract
Rusche, B. 1983. Beobachtbare Verhaltensänderungen als Folge einer Umweltbewertung durch das Tier: dargestellt am Balzverhalten von Melanochromis auratus (Cichlidae). [Observable changes of behavior as consequence of an environmental evaluation by the animal: represented at the courtship of Melanochromis auratus (Cichlidae).] Unpublished doctoral thesis, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn, 108 pp.
Russell, A.J.M., and T. Dobson. 2011. When free-riders become the agents for change—migrant fishers, institutional resilience, and adaptive fisheries management in Malawi. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (Suppl. 1): 114-118. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.05.005 Abstract
Russell, A.J.M., and T. Dobson. 2011a. Chiefs as critical partners for decentralized governance of fisheries: an analysis of co-management case studies in Malawi. Society & Natural Resources 24 (7): 734-750. doi:10.1080/08941920.2010.501432 Abstract
Russell, A.J.M., P. Grötz, S.K. Kriesemer, and D.E. Pemsl. 2008. Recommendation domains for pond aquaculture. Country case study: Development and status of freshwater aquaculture in Malawi. WorldFish Center Studies and Reviews No. 1869. The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia. 52 p. download full text
Rusuwa, B., A. Maruyama, and M. Yuma. 2006. Deterioration of cichlid habitat by increased sedimentation in the rocky littoral zone of Lake Malawi. Ichthyological Research 53 (4): 431-434. Abstract
Rutjes, H.A., M.C. Nieveen, R.E. Weber, F. Witte, and G.E. Van den Thillart. 2007. Multiple strategies of Lake Victoria cichlids to cope with life long hypoxia include hemoglobin switching. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 293 (3): R1376-R1383. Abstract
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Sabbah, S., S.M. Gray, E.S. Boss, J.M. Fraser, R. Zatha, and C.W. Hawryshyn. 2011. The underwater photic environment of Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi: comparison between rock- and sand-bottom habitats and implications for cichlid fish vision. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 487-500. doi:10.1242/jeb.051284 Abstract download full text Sakai, M. 1995. MHC genes in fish. Fish Pathology 30 (2): 159-166. popup abstract
Salanitri, J., P. Stanley, and O. Hennessy. 2002. Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis. Australasian Radiology 46 (4): 435-437. Abstract [Case report in a traveler who visited Lake Malawi]
Salzburger, W., S. Baric, and C. Sturmbauer. 2002. Speciation via introgressive hybridization in East African cichlids? Molecular Ecology 11 (3): 619-625. [This phenomenon is apparently documented in a Lake Tanganyika cichlid, Neolamprologus marunguensis.] Abstract
Salzburger, W., I. Braasch, and A. Meyer. 2007. Adaptive sequence evolution in a color gene involved in the formation of the characteristic egg-dummies of male haplochromine cichlid fishes. BMC Biology 2007 Nov 15; 5 (1): 51 [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract download full text
Salzburger, W., T. Mack, E. Verheyen, and A. Meyer. 2005. Out of Tanganyika: Genesis, explosive speciation, key-innovations and phylogeography of the haplochromine cichlid fishes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 17. Abstract download full text Supplemental Table 1 [Important paper on the origin of the haplochromines with major implications for Lakes Tanganyika, Victoria, and Malawi as well as for riverine taxa]
Salzburger, W., and A. Meyer. 2004. The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics. Naturwissenschaften 91 (6): 277-290. Epub 2004 Apr 20. Abstract download full text
Salzburger, W., A. Meyer, S. Baric, E. Verheyen, and C. Sturmbauer. 2002. Phylogeny of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid species flock and its relationship to the central and East African haplochromine cichlid fish faunas. Systematic Biology 51 (1): 113-135. [Based on mDNA sequence data, the authors reach the remarkable conclusion that "Apparently ... the current diversity of Central and East African haplochromines represents a relatively young and polyphyletic fauna that evolved from or in parallel to [substrate- spawning Lamprologus-like] lineages now endemic to Lake Tanganyika."] Abstract download full text
Salzburger, W., H. Niederstätter, A. Brandstätter, B. Berger, W. Parson, J. Snoeks, and C. Sturmbauer. 2006. Colour-assortative mating among populations of Tropheus moorii, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273 (1584): 257-266. Abstract
Samonte, I.E., Y. Satta, A. Sato, H. Tichy, N. Takahata, and J. Klein. 2007. Gene flow between species of Lake Victoria haplochromine fishes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (9): 2069-2080. Abstract
Sanetra, M., G. Begemann, M.-B. Becker, and A. Meyer. 2005. Conservation and co-option in developmental programmes: The importance of homology relationships. Frontiers in Zoology 2: 15. download full text [An example of possibly convergent color patterns in cichlids of Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika is illustrated and discussed in Fig. 6]
Santos, M.E., and W. Salzburger. 2012. How cichlids diversify. Science 338 (6107): 619-621. doi:10.1126/science.1224818 Abstract
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Sarmento, H., M. Isumbisho, and J.-P. Descy. 2006. Phytoplankton ecology of Lake Kivu (eastern Africa). Journal of Plankton Research 28 (9): 815-829. Abstract ["We conclude with a discussion on the phytoplankton assemblages of other large lakes from this region, in particular Lake Victoria and Lake Malawi"]
Sars, G.O. 1909. Zoological results of the Third Tanganyika Expedition 1904-1905. Report on the Copepoda. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London 1909: 31-76. download full text [Includes descriptions of two ergasilid copepods from Lake Nyasa (Malawi), Ergasiloides brevimanus and Ergasilus sp.; see Fryer (1956e) for discussion of their status]
Sars, G.O. 1910. Zoological results of the 3rd Tanganyika expedition (1904- 1905). Report on Ostracoda. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London 48: 732-760. download full text [Includes description of Ilyocypris propinqua and 'Cypridopsis' cunningtoni, both endemic to Lake Nyasa/Malawi]
Sato, A., D. Klein, H. Sültmann, F. Figueroa, C. O'hUigín, and J. Klein. 1997. Class I mhc genes of cichlid fishes: identification, expression, and polymorphism. Immunogenetics 46 (1): 63-72. Abstract
Sato, A., N. Takezaki, H. Tichy, F. Figueroa, W.E. Mayer, and J. Klein. 2003. Origin and speciation of haplochromine fishes in East African crater lakes investigated by the analysis of their mtDNA, Mhc genes, and SINEs. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20 (9): 1448-1462. Abstract download full text [Although focused on crater Lakes Lutoto and Nshere, near Lakes Edward and George (west of L. Victoria), this paper also alludes extensively to the Lake Malawi fauna and makes use of 13 Malawi cichlid species among the genetic comparative material]
Scheel, H.R. 1996. The pearl of Tanzania, Labidochromis sp. "perlmutt." Cichlid News [Miami], April; 5 (2): 17-19.
Schelly, R., W. Salzburger, S. Koblmüller, N. Duftner, and C. Sturmbauer. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of the lamprologine cichlid genus Lepidiolamprologus (Teleostei: Perciformes) based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, suggesting introgressive hybridization. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38: 426-438. [Epub 2005 ahead of print] Abstract
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Schliewen, U.K., D. Tautz, and S. Paabo. 1994. Sympatric speciation suggested by monophyly of crater lake cichlids. Nature 368 (6472): 629-632. popup abstract
Schmidle, W. 1899. II. Über Planktonalgen und Flagellaten aus dem Nyassasee. Botanisches Jahrbuch für Systematik 27: 229-237.
Schmidle, W. 1901. Schizophyceae, Conjugatae, Chlorophyceae. Pages [?-?] in: Engler, A. (editor). Die von W. Goetze am Rukwa-See und Nyassa-See sowie in den zwischen beiden Seen gelegenen Gebirgsländern, insbesondere dem Kinga-Gebirge gesammelten Pflanzen, nebst einigen Nachträgen (durch * bezeichnet) zu Bericht III. [Citation from AlgaeBase]
Schmidle, W. 1902a. V. Algen, insbesondere solche des Plankton, aus dem Nyassa-See und seiner Umgebung, gesammelt von Dr. Fülleborn. Botanisches Jahrbuch für Systematik 32: 56-88.
Schmidle, W. 1902b. VI. Das Chloro- und Cyanophyceenplankton des Nyassa und einiger anderer innerafrikanischer Seen. Botanisches Jahrbuch für Systematik 33: 1-33.
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Schönen, P. 1979. Verzorging en kweek van Labeotropheus trewavasae, Fryer, 1956. Cichlidae (Belgian Cichlid Association) 5: 37-42.
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Scholz, C.A. 1989. Seismic stratigraphic studies in East African Lakes Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Duke University, 201 pp.
Scholz, C.A. 1995. Seismic stratigraphy of an accommodation-zone margin rift-lake delta, Lake Malawi, Africa. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 80: 183-195. Abstract
Scholz, C.A., A.S. Cohen, and T.C. Johnson. 2011. Southern hemisphere tropical climate over the past 145ka: Results of the Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project, East Africa. Preface. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.01.001
Scholz, C.A., A.S. Cohen, T.C. Johnson, J. King, M.R. Talbot, and E.T. Brown. 2011. Scientific drilling in the Great Rift Valley: the 2005 Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project — an overview of the past 145,000 years of climate variability in Southern Hemisphere East Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 3-19. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.10.030 Abstract
Scholz, C.A., A.S. Cohen, J. King, T.C. Johnson, R.P. Lyons, and M.R. Talbot. 2006. Scientific drilling on Lake Malawi: A long, high-resolution record of climatic and limnological change from southern tropical East Africa [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, 22-25 October 2006, Philadelphia. Session No. 28, Core analysis of lake sediments (posters). Abstracts with programs, Vol. 38, No. 7, p. 83. download full text
Scholz, C.A., T.C. Johnson, A.S. Cohen, J.W. King, J.A. Peck, J.T. Overpeck, M.R. Talbot, E.T. Brown, L. Kalindekafe, P.Y.O. Amoako, R.P. Lyons, T.M. Shanahan, I.S. Castañeda, C.W. Heil, S.L. Forman, L.R. McHargue, K.R. Beuning, J. Gomez, and J. Pierson. 2007. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 104 (42): 16416-16421. Abstract download full text ["Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary." See also Cohen, Stone, Beuning et al. (2007)]
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Scholz, C.A., T.C. Moore, D.R. Hutchinson, A.J. Golmshtok, K.D. Klitgord, and A.G. Kurotchkin. 1998. Comparative sequence stratigraphy of low-latitude versus high-latitude lacustrine rift basins: Seismic data examples from the East African and Baikal rifts. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology 140: 401-420.
Scholz, C.A., and B.R. Rosendahl. 1988. Low lake stands in Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika, delineated with multifold seismic data. Science 240: 1645-1648. popup abstract
Scholz, C.A., B.R. Rosendahl, J.W. Versfelt, K.J. Kaszmarick, and L.D. Woods. 1989. Seismic atlas of Lake Malawi (Nyasa), East Africa. Project PROBE Geophysical Atlas Series, vol. 2.
Scholz, C.A., M.R. Talbot, E.T. Brown, and R.P. Lyons. 2011. Lithostratigraphy, physical properties and organic matter variability in Lake Malawi Drillcore sediments over the past 145,000 years. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 38-50. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.10.028 Abstract
Scholz, H. 2001. Locomotion behaviour of unionid mussels from Lake Malawi. The Malacological Society of London. Abstracts of presentations, freshwater bivalves, 19-20 March 2001. Abstract [Makes reference to "All three species of the Unionoidea from the lake ..., i.e. Mutela alata, Chambardia nyassaensis, and Coelatura [or Nyassunio] nyassaensis"]
Scholz, H., and M. Glaubrecht. 2004. Evaluating limnic diversity: Toward a revision of the unionid bivalve Coelatura Conrad, 1853 in the Great Lakes of East Africa and adjacent drainage systems (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 80 (1): 89–121. doi:10.1002/mmnz.20040800108 Abstract [Includes revision and illustrations of the Lake Malawi species]
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Schramm, U. 1995. Welse des Malawisees. Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift (DATZ), Sonderheft "Malawisee": 36-38. download full text [Catfishes of Lake Malawi]
Schrenk, F., T.G. Bromage, A. Gorthner, and O. Sandrock. 1995. Paleoecology of the Malawi Rift: vertebrate and invertebrate faunal contexts of the Chiwondo beds, northern Malawi. Journal of Human Evolution 1995, 28: 59–70. doi:10.1006/jhev.1995.1006 Abstract
Schröder, J.H. 1980. Morphological and behavioural differences between the BB/OB and B/W colour morphs of Pseudotropheus zebra Boulenger (Pisces: Cichlidae). Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 18: 69-76.
Schröder, J.H. 1986. Speciation within Pseudotropheus zebra Boulenger. Pp. 121-128 in: Crapon de Caprona, M.-D., and B. Fritzch (eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd European Workshop on Cichlid Biology, Bielefeld, West Germany, 5-8 February 1986. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques 251.
Schulte, J.E., C.S. O'Brien, M.A. Conte, K.E. O'Quin, and K.L. Carleton. 2014. Interspecific variation in Rx1 expression controls opsin expression and causes visual system diversity in African cichlid fishes. Molecular Biology and Evolution (epub 24 May 2014 ahead of print). doi:10.1093/molbev/msu172 Abstract
Schultheiß, R., B. Van Bocxlaer, F. Riedel, T. von Rintelen, and C. Albrecht. 2014. Disjunct distributions of freshwater snails testify to a central role of the Congo system in shaping biogeographical patterns in Africa. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014, 14: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-42 Abstract download full text
Schultheiss, R., B. Van Bocxlaer, T. Wilke, and C. Albrecht. 2009. Old fossils - young species: Evolutionary history of an endemic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B, 276 (1668): 2837-2846. Abstract
Schultheiss, R., T. Wilke, A. Jørgensen, and J. Albrecht. 2011. The birth of an endemic species flock: demographic history of the Bellamya group (Gastropoda, Viviparidae) in Lake Malawi. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 102: 130–143. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01574.x Abstract
Schütz, D., Z. Heg-Bachar, M. Taborsky, and D. Heg. 2012. Spawning coordination of mates in a shell brooding cichlid. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2012: 517849, 10 pp. doi:10.1155/2012/517849 Abstract download full text [In Lamprologus callipterus of L. Tanganyika]
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Schwalbe, M.A., D.K. Bassett, and J.F. Webb. 2012. Feeding in the dark: lateral-line-mediated prey detection in the peacock cichlid Aulonocara stuartgranti. Journal of Experimental Biology 215 (12): 2060-2071. doi:10.1242/jeb.065920 Abstract
Schwalbe, M.A.B. 2013. The role of flow sensing by the lateral line system in prey detection in two African cichlid fishes. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rhode Island. [Studied in Aulonocara stuartgranti and Tramitichromis sp.] Abstract download full text after 19-Sep-2014
Schwalbe, M.A.B., and J.F. Webb. 2014. Sensory basis for detection of benthic prey in two Lake Malawi cichlids. Zoology 117: 112-121. [In Tramitichromis and Aulonocara] doi:10.1016/j.zool.2013.09.003 Abstract
Schwarzer, J., B. Misof, D. Tautz, and U.K. Schliewen. 2009. The root of the East African cichlid radiations. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 186. Abstract download full text
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Scott, B.F., C. Spencer, C.H. Marvin, D.C. MacTavish, and D.C.G. Muir. 2002. Distribution of haloacetic acids in the water columns of the Laurentian Great Lakes and Lake Malawi. Environmental Science and Technology 36 (9): 1893-1898. Abstract
Scott, D.L. 1988. Modern geological processes in a continental rift lake: An interpretation of 28 kHz seismic profiles from Lake Malawi, East Africa. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Duke University, 82 pp.
Seegers, L. 1995. Fische aus dem tansanischen Einzug des Njassasees. Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift (DATZ), Sonderheft "Malawisee": 31-35. [This paper, published in the aquarium literature, contains an annotated checklist of the noncichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, predating my noncichlid checklist (1999) on this site. It also presents evidence that the designation of lectotypes in Banister & Clarke's (1980) revision is invalid (see remarks under Keilhack, 1910). I had overlooked Dr. Seegers's paper until he very kindly sent me a copy in April 2001.] download full text
Seegers, L. 1996. The identity of Pseudotropheus elongatus, with the description of P. longior from Mbamba Bay, Tanzania, and notes on Genyochromis mento (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 7 (2): 97-110. popup abstract
Seegers, L. 2008. The catfishes of Africa. A handbook for identification and maintenance. Aqualog Verlag, Rodgau, Germany (English edition); 604 pp. ISBN 9783936027839. Publisher's blurb A bookseller's blurb [An illustrated book-length review of all known African catfishes, including those of Lake Malawi. A key is given to families only (p. 25), and is not mentioned in the table of contents. To identify genera and species, the reader is left to ponder brief summaries and browse photographs or drawings. The book is a very welcome summary of knowledge, but seems to have been intended primarily for the advanced aquarium hobbyist since technical desciption of the catfishes is minimal (despite inclusion of descriptions of several new species of catfish - none from L. Malawi). The small Zaireichthys in empty Lanistes shells on sandy shores of Lake Malawi is mentioned but its identity was still unresolved. [Subsequently, it was described and named Zaireichthys lacustris by Eccles et al. (2011)]. A German edition of the book was also published (Mary Bailey is credited with its translation into English). Without knowing the exact dates of publication of each edition, it is unclear which edition constitutes the original publication of the new taxa despite Seegers's statement (p. 4) that "In case of doubt the German edition shall be the official text."]
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Seehausen, O. 1997. Distribution of and reproductive isolation among color morphs of a rock-dwelling Lake Victoria cichlid (Haplochromis nyererei). Ecology of Freshwater Fish 6 (1): 57-?. [not seen; citation to be verified] popup abstract [I can't resist including Seehausen's papers, even though they focus on Lake Victoria, because they are so relevant to discussions of cichlid speciation in Lake Malawi!]
Seehausen, O. 2000. Explosive speciation rates and unusual species richness in haplochromine cichlid fishes: Effects of sexual selection. Pp. 237-274 in: Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe, eds. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, volume 31. Academic Press, London. popup abstract
Seehausen, O. 2002. Patterns in fish radiation are compatible with Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria and 14600 year history for its cichlid species flock. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B, 269 (1490): 491-497. Abstract download full text
Seehausen, O. 2004. Hybridization and adaptive radiation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19 (4): 198-207. popup abstract
Seehausen, O. 2006. African cichlid fish: a model system in adaptive radiation research. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B, 273: 1987-1998. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3539 Abstract download full text
Seehausen, O., and J.M. van Alphen. 1999. Can sympatric speciation by disruptive sexual selection explain rapid evolution of cichlid diversity in Lake Victoria? Ecology Letters 2 (4): 262-271. [See also response by Bouton (2000)] popup abstract
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Seehausen, O., J.J.M. van Alphen, and R. Lande. 1999. Color polymorphism and sex ratio distortion in a cichlid fish as an incipient stage in sympatric speciation by sexual selection. Ecology Letters 2 (6): 367-378. [in Lake Victoria] Abstract
Seehausen, O., J.J.M. van Alphen, and F. Witte. 1997. Cichlid fish diversity threatened by eutrophication that curbs sexual selection. Science 277 (5333, September 19): 1808-1811. [Lake Victoria] popup abstract download full text
Seehausen, O., J.J.M. van Alphen, and F. Witte. 1999. Can ancient colour polymorphisms explain why some cichlid lineages speciate rapidly under disruptive sexual selection? Belgian Journal of Zoology 129 (1): 43-60. [This research focused on Lake Victoria but the paper makes comparisons to Lake Malawi. The "OB" or orange blotched color pattern, which occurs in both lakes, is one of those considered.] popup abstract
Seehausen, O., and N. Bouton. 1997. Microdistribution and fluctuations in niche overlap in a rocky shore cichlid community in Lake Victoria. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 6 (3): 161-173. popup abstract
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Seehausen, O., E. Koetsier, M.V. Schneider, L.J. Chapman, C.A. Chapman, M.E. Knight, G.F. Turner, J.J.M. van Alphen, and R. Bills. 2003. Nuclear markers reveal unexpected genetic variation and a Congolese-Nilotic origin of the Lake Victoria cichlid species flock. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B (2003), 270: 129-137. "Published online 9 December 2002." popup abstract download full text [Although it is not evident from the title, this paper has significant implications for understanding the phylogeny of Lake Malawi's flocks, especially concerning the status of Astatotilapia calliptera.]
Seehausen, O., P.J. Mayhew, and J.J.M. van Alphen. 1999. Evolution of colour patterns in East African cichlid fish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12 (3): 514-534. popup abstract
Seehausen, O., and D. Schlüter. 2004. Male-male competition and nuptial-colour displacement as a diversifying force in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B (Biological Science) 271 (1546): 1345-1353. Abstract ["We suggest that male-male competition is an important and previously neglected agent of diversification among haplochromine cichlid fishes"]
Seehausen, O., Y. Terai, I.S. Magalhaes, K.L. Carleton, H.D.J. Mrosso, R. Miyagi, I. van der Sluijs, M.V. Schneider, M.E. Maan, H. Tachida, H. Imai, and N. Okada. 2008. Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish. Nature 455: 620-627. Abstract [In Pundamilia nyererei & P. pundamilia of L. Victoria; see commentary by Kirkpatrick & Price (2008)]
Seehausen, O., F. Witte, E.F. Katunzi, J. Smits, and N. Bouton. 1997. Patterns of the remnant cichlid fauna in southern Lake Victoria. Patrones de la fauna de cíclidos remanentes en el sur del Lago Victoria. Conservation Biology 11 (4): 890-904. Abstract
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Seehausen, O., F. Witte, J.J.M. van Alphen, and N. Bouton. 1998. Direct mate choice maintains diversity among sympatric cichlids in Lake Victoria. Journal of Fish Biology 53: 37-55. popup abstract
Sefc, K.M., S. Baric, W. Salzburger, and C. Sturmbauer. 2007. Species-specific population structure in rock-specialized sympatric cichlid species in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Journal of Molecular Evolution 64 (1): 33-49. (Epub 2006 Dec 9.) Abstract download full text [In Eretmodus cyanostictus, Tropheus moorii, and Ophthalmotilapia ventralis]
Segers, F.H.I.D., G. Berishvili, and B. Taborsky. 2012. Egg size-dependent expression of growth hormone receptor accompanies compensatory growth in fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279: 592–600. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1104 Abstract download full text [in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Simochromis pleurospilus]
Selz, O.M., K. Lucek, K.A. Young, O. Seehausen. Relaxed trait covariance in interspecific cichlid hybrids predicts morphological diversity in adaptive radiations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology [Epub 16 Dec 2013 ahead of print] doi:10.1111/jeb.12283 Abstract
Sengupta, M.E., T.K. Kristensen, H. Madsen, and A. Jørgensen. 2009. Molecular phylogenetic investigations of the Viviparidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) in the lakes of the Rift Valley area of Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 (3): 797-805. Abstract [Includes consideration of the endemic Lake Malawi species radiation of Bellamya spp.]
Ser, J.R., R.B. Roberts, and T.D. Kocher. 2010. Multiple interacting loci control sex determination in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Evolution 64 (2): 486-501. [Epub 23 Oct 2009 ahead of print] doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00871.x Abstract download full text
Sharp, B.J. 1981. An ecological study of territoriality in four cichlid species resident on rocky shores near Monkey Bay, Lake Malawi. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, Rhodes University, South Africa.
Shaw, P.W., G.F. Turner, M.R. Idid, R.L. Robinson, and G.R. Carvalho. 2000. Genetic population structure indicates sympatric speciation of Lake Malawi pelagic cichlids. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B, 267 (1459): 2273-2280. Abstract download full text [See rebuttal by Fryer (2006)]
Shedlock, A.M., K. Takahashi, and N. Okada. 2004. SINEs of speciation: Tracking lineages with retroposons. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19 (10): 545-553. Abstract
Shumway, C.A. 2010. The evolution of complex brains and behaviors in African cichlid fishes. Current Zoology 56 (1): 144-156. [In the Ectodini of Lake Tanganyika] Abstract download full text
Sides, J., and C. Lydeard. 2000. Phylogenetic utility of the tyrosine kinase gene X-src for assessing relationships among representative cichlid fishes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 14 (1): 51-74. popup abstract
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Simões, J.M., I.G. Duarte, P.J. Fonseca, G.F. Turner, and M.C. Amorim. 2008. Courtship and agonistic sounds by the cichlid fish Pseudotropheus zebra. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 124 (2): 1332-1338. Abstract
Simões, J.M., P.J. Fonseca, G.F. Turner, and M.C.P. Amorim. 2008. African cichlid Pseudotropheus spp. males moan to females during foreplay. Journal of Fish Biology 72 (10): 2689-2694. Abstract
Sipawe, R.D. 2001. Gear and species selectivity in the gillnet fishery in Lake Malawi. Pages ??-?? in: Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (eds.). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001. Government of Malawi.
Sipawe, R.D., W. Namoto, and O.C. Mponda. 2001. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Nkhotakota 1976-1999. Fisheries Bulletin 50, 22 pp. Government of Malawi, Fisheries Department. download full text (953 Kb)
Skelton, P.H. 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers, Halfway House, South Africa [now part of Struik Publishing, Gauteng, South Africa]; xiv + 388 pages. [This superbly written and illustrated book supplants Jubb (1967) as the standard work for "southern Africa," which excludes most of Malawi. The Skelton book does treat a number of species that occur in Malawi. How to purchase from Ichthos]
Skelton, P.H. 1996. A review of Opsaridium zambezense (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from southern Africa with description of a new species from Malawi. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters: 59-84. [Opsaridium tweddleorum]
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Smith, A. 1840. Pisces. In: Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa; consisting chiefly of figures and descriptions of the objects of natural history collected during an expedition into the interior of South Africa in 1834-36. Volume 4. 77 unnumbered pages. [Tilapia sparrmanii, type species of Tilapia, is figured on Plate V and named and described on the facing page]
Smith, A.R., and K.L. Carleton. 2010. Allelic variation in Malawi cichlid opsins: a tale of two genera. Journal of Molecular Evolution 70 (6): 593-604. doi:10.1007/s00239-010-9355-x Abstract [The two genera are Metriaclima (=Maylandia) and Labidochromis]
Smith, A.R., L. D'Annunzio, A.E. Smith, A. Sharma, C.M. Hofmann, N.J. Marshall, and K.L. Carleton. 2011. Intraspecific cone opsin expression variation in the cichlids of Lake Malawi. Molecular Ecology 20 (2): 299–310. [Epub 19 Nov 2010 ahead of print]. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04935.x [In Copadichromis eucinostomus, Metriaclima (=Maylandia) zebra, & Tropheops gracilior]
Smith, A.R., K. Ma, D. Soares, and K.L. Carleton. 2012. Relative LWS cone opsin expression determines optomotor thresholds in Malawi cichlid fish. Genes, Brain and Behavior 11 (2): 185–192. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2011.00739.x Abstract
Smith, A.R., M.J. van Staaden, and K.L. Carleton. 2012. An evaluation of the role of sensory drive in the evolution of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2012: 647420, 12 pp. doi:10.1155/2012/647420 Abstract download full text
Smith, E.A. 1877. On the shells of Lake Nyasa, and on a few marine species from Mozambique. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1877: 712-722. download full text
Smith, E.A. 1881a. On a collection of shells from Lakes Tanganyika and Nyassa and other localities in East Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1881: 276-300. download full text
Smith, E.A. 1881b. Remarks on the shells from Lakes Tanganyika and Nyassa and other localities between the latter and Dar es Salaam. Pp. 295-297 in: Thompson, J., To the Central African Lakes and back, vol. 2.
Smith, E.A. 1893. On a collection of land and freshwater shells transmitted by Mr. H.H. Johnston, C.B. from British Central Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893: 632-641. download full text
Smith, L. 1993a. A historical perspective on the fishery of Chembe enclave village in Lake Malawi National Park. Nyala 17 (2): 49-60.
Smith, L. 1993b. Otters and gillnet fishing in Lake Malawi National Park. IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin 8: 4-6. download full text
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Smith, L.W. 1998. Use of traditional practices and knowledge in monitoring a Lake Malawi artisanal fishery. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 18 (4): 982-988. popup abstract
Smith, L.W. 2000. The reproductive biology of an open-water spawning Lake Malawi cichlid, Copadichromis chrysonotus. African Zoology 35 (2): 151-164. popup abstract
Smith, P.F. 2002. Evolution of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maine, Orono. popup abstract
Smith, P.F., A. Konings, and I. Kornfield. 2003. Hybrid origin of a cichlid population in Lake Malawi: Implications for genetic variation and species diversity. Molecular Ecology 12 (9): 2497-2504. Abstract download full text [The putative hybrid involves "Metriaclima" zebra and "M." thapsinogen]
Smith, P.F., and I. Kornfield. 2002. Phylogeography of Lake Malawi cichlids of the genus Pseudotropheus: significance of allopatric colour variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B - Biological Sciences) 269 (1509): 2495-2502. popup abstract download full text [Pseudotropheus (Maylandia) zebra populations with red dorsal fins ("red top")]
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Snoeks, J. 2000. How well known is the ichthyodiversity of the ancient African lakes? Pp. 17-38 in: Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe, eds. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, volume 31. Academic Press, London. popup abstract
Snoeks, J. 2001. Cichlid diversity, speciation and systematics: examples from the Great African Lakes. Pp. 150-166 in: Coleman, R. (ed.). Cichlid research: State of the art. Journal of Aquariculture & Aquatic Sciences 9.
Snoeks, J. (ed.). 2004. The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: Identification, distribution and taxonomy. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas; 360 pp. ISBN 0-9668255-8-6. Publisher's blurb ["The research reported in this book was carried out as part of the GEF/SADC Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project in Malawi, Tanzania and Mozambique...." Of the 15 chapters, 13 are written or coauthored by Snoeks. One chapter by Hanssens includes descriptions of 35 new deep-water species assigned to the ill-defined genus Placidochromis; another by G. Turner et al. treats identification and biology of Diplotaxodon, Rhamphochromis, and Pallidochromis without formally describing new species. Alticorpus geoffreyi is described as new in a chapter by Snoeks & Walapa.]
Snoeks, J. 2004b. The non-cichlid fishes of the Lake Malawi system: a compilation. Pp. 20-26 in: Snoeks, J. (ed.). The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: Identification, distribution and taxonomy. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas; 360 pp. [Primarily a checklist in the form of an annotated table, introducing several revised generic assignments, synonymies, and a few new records for the lake]
Snoeks, J., and R. Walapa. 2004. The genus Alticorpus Stauffer & McKaye, 1988. Pp. 27-56 in: Snoeks, J. (ed.). The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/ Niassa: Identification, distribution and taxonomy. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas; 360 pp. [Includes description of Alticorpus geoffreyi sp.n. and synonymization of A. pectinatum with A. peterdaviesi]
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Soares, R.M., V.F. Magalhaes, and S.M. Azevedo. 2004. Accumulation and depuration of microcystins (cyanobacteria hepatotoxins) in Tilapia rendalli (Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions. Aquatic Toxicology 70 (1): 1-10. Abstract
Sodsuk, P.K., B.J. McAndrew, and G.F. Turner. 1995. Evolutionary relationships of the Lake Malawi Oreochromis species — evidence from allozymes. Journal of Fish Biology 47 (2): 321-333. popup abstract
Song, A.M., and R. Chuenpagdee. 2010. Operationalizing governability: a case study of a Lake Malawi fishery. Fish and Fisheries 11 (3): 235–249. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00379.x Abstract
Spady, T.C., J.W.L. Parry, P.R. Robinson, D.M. Hunt, J.K. Bowmaker, and K. Carleton. 2006. Evolution of the cichlid visual palette through ontogenetic subfunctionalization of the opsin gene arrays. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23: 1538-1547. Abstract download full text
Spady, T.C., O. Seehausen, E.R. Loew, R.C. Jordan, T.D. Kocher, and K.L. Carleton. 2005. Adaptive molecular evolution in the opsin genes of rapidly speciating cichlid species. Molecular Biology and Evolution 22: 1412-1422. Abstract
Sparks, J.S., and W.L. Smith. 2004. Phylogeny and biogeography of cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae). Cladistics 20: 501-517. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2004.00038.x Abstract [Impressive study employed multiple nuclear and mitochondrial genes to reconstruct cichlid phylogeny, also including a broad range of out-groups. Two Lake Malawi species were included, Pseudotropheus zebra and Diplotaxodon sp., the first from the Mbuna flock, the second from the "Hap" flock; these two formed a well-supported node on the consensus cladogram. The sister group of this node was a node with three riverine/ Lake Victoria species; the sister group of both these nodes was a node for the two Lake Tanganyika species in the study. Heterochromis was strongly corroborated as the most basal member of the African clade, i.e., the subfamily Pseudocrenilabrinae. Another major finding was support for the sister-group of the Cichlidae being a much larger clade of percomorphs than just the labroid families]
Specht, T.D. 1987. Architecture of the Malawi Rift, East Africa. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Duke University, 56 pp.
Specht, T., and B.R. Rosendahl. 1989. Architecture of the Malawi Rift. Pp. ?-? in: Rosendahl, B.R., J.J.W. Rogers, and N.M. Rach (eds.). Rifting in Africa - Karoo to Recent. Journal of African Earth Sciences 8 (2/3/4).
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Spigel, R.H., and G.W. Coulter. 1996. Comparison of hydrology and physical limnology of the East African great lakes: Tanganyika, Malawi, Victoria, Kivu and Turkana (with reference to some North American Great Lakes). Pages 103- 140 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Spreinat, A. 2000. Zur Fortpflanzung des Malawisee-Fiederbartwelses. [Reproduction of the Lake Malawi upside-down catfish.] DATZ, Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift 53 (1): 14-17. [Synodontis njassae]
Staeck, W. 1976. Ergebnisse einer ichthyologischen Sammelreise zum Nordende des Nyassasees (2). Aquarium Aqua Terra 19 (89): 486-492. [Pseudotropheus fainzilberi]
Staeck, W. 1980. Pseudotropheus heteropictus n.sp. aus dem Malawi-See (Pisces: Cichlidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 60 (1979) (3/4): 159-162.
Stager, J.C., J.J. Day, and S. Santini. 2004. Comment on "Origin of the superflock of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, East Africa." Science 304 (5673): 963 (abstract); published online: download full text [Comment is on Verheyen et al. (2003); see also response by Verheyen et al. (2004)]
Stager, J.C., P. Reinthal, and D.A. Livingstone. 1986. A 25000 year history for Lake Victoria, East Africa, and some comments on its significance for the evolution of cichlid fishes. Freshwater Biology 16 (1): 15-19.
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Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1988. Three new rock-dwelling cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1988 (3): 663-668. [Pseudotropheus ater, P. cyaneus, and P. flavus] popup abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1991. Description of a facultative cleanerfish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1991 (1): 141-147. [Pseudotropheus pursus] popup abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1993. A new species of Protomelas (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 4 (4): 343-350. [P. dejunctus] popup abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1994. A new species of Iodotropheus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 5 (4): 331-344. popup abstract [I. declivitas sp. nov., redescriptions of I. sprengerae and I. stuartgranti, and a key to species of Iodotropheus.]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1995. Iodotropheus sprengerae Oliver & Loiselle, 1972 (Osteichthyes, Perciformes): proposed replacement of holotype by a neotype. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 52 (4): 321-323. popup abstract
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Stauffer, J.R., Jr., M.E. Arnegard, M. Cetron, J.J. Sullivan, L.A. Chitsulo, G.F. Turner, S. Chiotha, and K.R. McKaye. [1996.] Controlling vectors and hosts of parasitic diseases using fishes. A case history of schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi. BioScience 47, January 1997: 41-49. [My regular subscription copy of this issue arrived 23 Dec 96. The authors claim that, as of 1975, "the open waters of Lake Malawi were considered schistosomiasis free" (p. 45). This claim is effectively refuted by Jordan & Webbe (1996). - MKO]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., K. Black, M. Geerts, A.F. Konings, and K.R. McKaye. 2006. Cichlid fish diversity and speciation. Pp. 213-225 in: Reconstructing the tree of life: Taxonomy and systematics of species rich taxa. Hodkinson, T.R., and J.A.N. Parnell (editors). Systematics Association Special Volume 72. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Publisher's blurb
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., K. Black, and A.F. Konings. 2013. Descriptions of five new species of Metriaclima (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Zootaxa 3647 (1): 101-136. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3647.1.6 download full text [Metriaclima is a junior synonym of Maylandia; thus, the latter name is correct.]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and J.M. Boltz. 1989. Description of a rock-dwelling cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 102: 8-13. [Pseudotropheus xanstomachus]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., N.J. Bowers, K.A. Kellogg, and K.R. McKaye. 1997. A revision of the blue-black Pseudotropheus zebra (Teleostei: Cichlidae) complex from Lake Malawi, Africa, with a description of a new genus and ten new species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 148: 189-230. popup abstract [Description of Metriaclima new genus, and new species: M. melabranchion, M. chrysomallos, M. phaeos, M. cyneusmarginatus, M. benetos, M. pyrsonotos, M. sandaracinos, M. emmiltos, M. mbenjii, and M. thapsinogen. Metriaclima nevertheless is a junior synonym of Maylandia Meyer & Foerster (1984) in the opinion of M.K. Oliver, although Stauffer et al. regard Maylandia as a nomen nudum; Konings (1999a) also supported the Stauffer group's name. Metriaclima was synonymized with Maylandia by Condé & Géry, 1999; Maylandia is also recognized as the correct name by W. Eschmeyer's authoritative Catalog of Fishes, so the controversy would appear to be settled once for all in favor of Maylandia.]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., N.J. Bowers, T.D. Kocher, and K.R. McKaye. 1996. Evidence of hybridization between Cynotilapia afra and Pseudotropheus zebra (Teleostei: Cichlidae) following an intralacustrine translocation in Lake Malawi. Copeia (1): 203-208.
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Stauffer, J.R., Jr., N.J. Bowers, K.R. McKaye, and T.D. Kocher. 1995. Evolutionary significant units among cichlid fishes: The role of behavioral studies. Pp. 227-244 in: Evolution and the aquatic ecosystem: Defining unique units in population conservation. J.L. Nielsen (editor). American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. download full text
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., R.M. Cleaver-Yoder, and A.F. Konings. 2011. Two new species of Stigmatochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124 (3): 212-222. doi:10.2988/10-30.1 Abstract [The new species are S. macrorhynchos and S. melanchros]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., E.A. Hale, and R. Seltzer. 1999. Hunting strategies of a Lake Malawi cichlid with reverse countershading. Copeia (4): 1108-1111. popup abstract [Tyrannochromis macrostoma]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and E. Hert. 1992. Pseudotropheus callainos, a new species of mbuna (Cichlidae), with analysis of changes associated with two intra-lacustrine transplantations in Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 3 (3): 253-264. [P. callainos sp. nov. for the "cobalt zebra," and a redescription of P. aurora Burgess] popup abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and K.A. Kellogg. 2002. Description of a new species in the Pseudotropheus williamsi complex (Teleostei: Cichlidae), from Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 102 (1): 146-151. [P. galanos] Abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and A.F. Konings. 2006. Review of Copadichromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) with the description of a new genus and six new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 17 (1): 9-42. Abstract [Mchenga new genus (type species: Copadichromis cyclicos), and new species Copadichromis melas, C. chizumuluensis, C. diplostigma, C. insularis, C. cyanocephalus, and C. parvus]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and W.F. Loftus. 2010. Brood parasitism of a bagrid catfish (Bagrus meridionalis) by a clariid catfish (Bathyclarias nyasensis) in Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 2010 (1): 71-74. Abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., T.J. LoVullo, and H.Y. Han. 1996. Commensalistic feeding relationships of three Lake Malawi fish species. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125 (2): 224-229. popup abstract [Taeniolethrinops praeorbitalis, Cyrtocara moorii, and Protomelas annectens]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., T.J. LoVullo, and K.R. McKaye. 1993. Three new sand-dwelling cichlids from Lake Malawi, Africa, with a discussion of the status of the genus Copadichromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Copeia 1993 (4): 1017-1027. popup abstract [C. conophoros, C. cyclicos, and C. thinos]
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Stauffer, J.R., Jr., H. Madsen, A. Konings, P. Bloch, C.P. Ferreri, J. Likongwe, K.R. McKaye, and K.E. Black. 2007. Taxonomy: A precursor to understanding ecological interactions among schistosomes, snail hosts, and snail-eating fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136 (4): 1136-1145. Abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., H. Madsen, K. McKaye, A. Konings, P. Bloch, C. Fereri, J. Likongwe, and P. Makaula. 2006. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi: Relationship of fish and intermediate host density to prevalence of human infection. EcoHealth 3: 22-27. Abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., H. Madsen, and D. Rollinson. Introgression in Lake Malawi: Increasing the threat of human urogenital schistosomiasis? Ecohealth [Epub 18-Oct-2013 ahead of print]. Abstract
Stauffer J.R., H. Madsen, B. Webster, K. Black, D. Rollinson, and A. Konings. 2008. Schistosoma haematobium in Lake Malawi: Susceptibility and molecular diversity of the snail hosts Bulinus globosus and B. nyassanus. Journal of Helminthology 82: 377-382 Abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and K.R. McKaye. 1985. Cyrtocara macrocleithrum, a deep-water cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1985 (3): 591-596. popup abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and K.R. McKaye. 1986. Description of a paedophagous deep-water cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 99: 29-33. popup abstract [Diplotaxodon greenwoodi]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and K.R. McKaye. 1988. Description of a genus and three deep water species of fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1988 (2): 441-449. [Alticorpus new genus, A. mentale, A. pectinatum, A. profundicola] popup abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., K.R. McKaye, and A.F. Konings. 2002. Behaviour: An important diagnostic tool for Lake Malawi cichlids. Fish and Fisheries 3 (3): 213-224. Abstract
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Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and I. Posner. 2006. An investigation of the utility of feeding angles among Lake Malawi rock-dwelling cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Copeia (2): 289-292. Abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and R.A. Ruffing. 2008. Behaviorally induced sex reversal of Metriaclima cf. livingstoni (Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi. Copeia (3): 618-620. Abstract download full text [=Maylandia cf. livingstonii]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and T. Sato. 2002. A new species of Copadichromis (Cichlidae) from Thumbi West Island, Lake Malawi. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 13 (1): 91-95. [C. atripinnis] popup abstract
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and E.S. van Snik. 1996. New species of Petrotilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Copeia 1996 (3): 695-702. popup abstract [P. chrysos]
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., and E.S. van Snik Gray. 2004. Phenotypic plasticity: Its role in trophic radiation and explosive speciation in cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Animal Biology 54 (2): 137-158. popup abstract
Steenkamp, M.K.J., G.D. Engelbrecht, and P.F.S. Mulder. 2001. Allozyme variation in a Johnston's topminnow, Aplocheilichthys johnstoni, population from the Zambezi River system. Water SA [South Africa] 27 (1): 53-56. (ISSN 0378-4738) download full text
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Stelkens, R.B., M.E. Pierotti, D.A. Joyce, A.M. Smith, I.V. Sluijs, and O. Seehausen. 2008. Disruptive sexual selection on male nuptial coloration in an experimental hybrid population of cichlid fish. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 363 (1505): 2861-2870. Abstract [In genus Pundamilia of L. Victoria]
Stelkens, R.B., C. Schmid, O. Selz, and O. Seehausen. 2009. Phenotypic novelty in experimental hybrids is predicted by the genetic distance between species of cichlid fish. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 283. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-283 Abstract download full text [Based on 5 L. Victoria cichlid species and the L. Malawi species Metriaclima (=Maylandia) estherae, Protomelas taeniolatus, and the nonendemic Astatotilapia calliptera]
Stelkens, R.B., and O. Seehausen. 2009. Phenotypic divergence but not genetic distance predicts assortative mating among species of a cichlid fish radiation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 1679-1694. [In Pseudocrenilabrus philander, P. sp. grey back, and P. sp. weed picker, all from Lake Mweru] download full text
Stewart, D.J. 1977. Geographic variation of Barbus radiatus Peters, a widely distributed African cyprinid fish. Environmental Biology of Fishes 1 (2): 113-125. popup abstract
Stewart, K.M., and A.M. Murray. 2013. Earliest fish remains from the Lake Malawi Basin, Malawi, and biogeographical implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (3): 532-539. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.741086 Abstract
Stewart, T.A., and R.C. Albertson. 2010. Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids. BMC Biology 8: 8. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-8 download full text
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Stiassny, M.L.J. 1981a. The phyletic status of the family Cichlidae (Pisces, Perciformes): A comparative anatomical investigation. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 31 (2): 275-314. popup abstract
Stiassny, M.L.J. 1981b. Phylogenetic versus convergent relationship between piscivorous cichlid fishes from Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 40 (3): 67-101. popup abstract
Stiassny, M.L.J. 1991. Phylogenetic intrarelationships of the family Cichlidae: an overview. Pp. 1-35 in Keenleyside, M.H.A. (ed.), Cichlid fishes. Behaviour, ecology and evolution. Chapman & Hall, London. [Cichlids together with surfperches (Embiotocidae), damselfishes (Pomacentridae), wrasses (Labridae), odacids (Odacidae), and parrotfishes (Scaridae) constitute the percomorph suborder Labroidei, a monophyletic group. However, see evidence to the contrary in Streelman & Karl (1997)]
Stiassny, M.L.J., and A. Meyer. 1999. Cichlids of the rift lakes. Scientific American 280 [February]: 64-69. popup abstract download full text
Stiver, K.A., J.K. Desjardins, J.L. Fitzpatrick, B. Neff, J.S. Quinn, and S. Balshine. Evidence for size and sex-specific dispersal in a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish. Molecular Ecology 2007 16 (14): 2974-2984. Abstract [In the Lake Tanganyikan Neolamprologus pulcher]
Stock, A.D. 1976. The taxonomic status of Labidochromis joanjohnsonae Johnson, Labidochromis fryeri Oliver and Melanochromis exasperatus Burgess. Buntbarsche Bulletin 55: 14-19. [Newsletter of the American Cichlid Association; issue is out of print]
Stone, J., A. Cohen, K.R.M. Beuning, T. Johnson, and J. King. 2006. Preliminary diatom stratigraphy of core MAL05-1C, Lake Malawi, Africa [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, 22-25 October 2006, Philadelphia. Session No. 202, Paleoclimatology/paleoceanography: Proxies, patterns, and processes (posters). Abstracts with programs, Vol. 38, No. 7, p. 488. download full text
Stone, J.R., K.S. Westover, and A.S. Cohen. 2011. Late Pleistocene paleohydrography and diatom paleoecology of the central basin of Lake Malawi, Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 51-70. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.012 Abstract
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Streelman, J.T., and R.C. Albertson. 2006. Evolution of novelty in the cichlid dentition. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 306B (3): 216-226. Abstract
Streelman, J.T., R.C. Albertson, and T.D. Kocher. 2003. Genome mapping of the orange blotch colour pattern in cichlid fishes. Molecular Ecology 12 (9): 2465-2471. Abstract download full text
Streelman, J.T., R.C. Albertson, and T.D. Kocher. 2007. Variation in body size and trophic morphology within and among genetically differentiated populations of the cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra, from Lake Malawi. Freshwater Biology 52 (3): 525-538. Abstract [Metriaclima = Maylandia]
Streelman, J.T., and P.D. Danley. 2003. The stages of vertebrate evolutionary radiation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18 (3): 126-131. download full text
Streelman, J.T., S.L. Gmyrek, M.R. Kidd, C. Kidd, R.L. Robinson, E. Hert, A.J. Ambali, and T.D. Kocher. 2004. Hybridization and contemporary evolution in an introduced cichlid fish from Lake Malawi National Park. Molecular Ecology 13 (8): 2471-2479. Abstract download full text
Streelman, J.T., and S.A. Karl. 1997. Reconstructing labroid evolution with single-copy nuclear DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B, 264: 1011-1020. Abstract download full text [Molecular phylogenetic study with single-copy nuclear DNA, indicating that the labroid fishes (Labridae, Odacidae, Scaridae, Cichlidae, Embiotocidae, Pomacentridae) do not constitute a clade, contrary to the morphological evidence of Stiassny (1991)]
Streelman, J.T., J.F. Webb, R.C. Albertson, and T.D. Kocher. 2003. The cusp of evolution and development: a model of cichlid tooth shape diversity. Evolution & Development 5 (6): 600-608. download full text
Streelman, J.T., R. Zardoya, A. Meyer, and S.A. Karl. 1998. Multilocus phylogeny of cichlid fishes (Pisces: Perciformes): Evolutionary comparison of microsatellite and single-copy nuclear loci. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15 (7): 798-808. Abstract download full text
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Sturmbauer, C. 1998. Explosive speciation in cichlid fishes of the African Great Lakes: a dynamic model of adaptive radiation. Journal of Fish Biology 53: 18-36. popup abstract
Sturmbauer, C. 2008. The Great Lakes in East Africa: Biological conservation considerations for species flocks. Hydrobiologia 615 (1): 95-101. Abstract
Sturmbauer, C., S. Baric, W. Salzburger, L. Rüber, and E. Verheyen. 2001. Lake level fluctuations synchronize genetic divergences of cichlid fishes in African lakes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 (2): 144-154. Abstract download full text
Sturmbauer, C., U. Hainz, S. Baric, E. Verheyenk, and W. Salzburger. 2003. Evolution of the tribe Tropheini from Lake Tanganyika: Synchronized explosive speciation producing multiple evolutionary parallelism. Hydrobiologia 500: 51-64. Abstract
Sturmbauer, C., and A. Meyer. 1992. Genetic divergence, speciation and morphological stasis in a lineage of African cichlid fishes. Nature 358 (6387): 578-581. [The group discussed is Tropheus] Abstract download full text
Sturmbauer, C., and A. Meyer. 1993. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the endemic mouthbrooding lineages of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika in eastern Africa. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10: 751-768. download full text
Sturmbauer, C., E. Verheyen, and A. Meyer. 1993. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Lamprologini, the major substrate spawning lineage of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika in eastern Africa. Molecular Biology and Evolution 11: 691-703. download full text
Sturmbauer, C., E. Verheyen, L. Rüber, and A. Meyer. 1997. Phylogenetic patterns in populations of cichlid fishes from rocky habitats in Lake Tanganyika. Pp. 97-111 in: Molecular Systematics of Fishes. T. Kocher and C. Stepien (editors). Academic Press, San Diego.
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Sugawara, T., Y. Terai, H. Imai, G.F. Turner, S. Koblmüller, C. Sturmbauer, Y. Shichida, and N. Okada. 2005. Parallelism of amino acid changes at the RH1 affecting spectral sensitivity among deep-water cichlids from Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 102 (15): 5448-5453. [Epub 4 Apr 2005 ahead of print] Abstract download full text
Sugawara, T., Y. Terai, and N. Okada. 2002. Natural selection of the rhodopsin gene during the adaptive radiation of East African great lakes cichlid fishes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (10): 1807-1811. Abstract download full text
Sultana, S.R., D.J. Byrne, and J.B. McCullough. 1995. The value of a travel history in urology. Scottish Medical Journal 40 (3): 83. Abstract [Case report of urinary schistosomiasis in a traveler who had swum in Lake Malawi]
Sugie, A., Y. Terai, R. Ota, and N. Okada. 2004. The evolution of genes for pigmentation in African cichlid fishes. Gene 343 (2): 337-346. Abstract
Sültmann, H., and W.E. Mayer. 1997. Reconstruction of cichlid phylogeny using nuclear DNA markers. Pp. 39-51 in: Molecular Systematics of Fishes. T. Kocher and C. Stepien (editors). Academic Press, San Diego. popup abstract
Sültmann, H., W.E. Mayer, F. Figueroa, H. Tichy, and J. Klein. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of cichlid fishes using nuclear DNA markers. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12 (6): 1033-1047. Abstract download full text
Svensson, O., B. Egger, B. Gricar, K. Woodhouse, C. van Oosterhout, W. Salzburger, O. Seehausen, and G.F. Turner. 2011. Segregation of species-specific male attractiveness in F2 hybrid Lake Malawi cichlid fish. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2011: 426179, 7 pp. doi:10.4061/2011/426179 Abstract download full text
Sylvester, J.B., C.A. Rich, Y.H. Loh, M.J. van Staaden, G.J. Fraser, and J.T. Streelman. 2010. Brain diversity evolves via differences in patterning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 107 (21): 9718-9723. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000395107 Abstract download full text [In Lake Malawi cichlids - 3 rocky shore mbuna (Labeotropheus fuelleborni, Maylandia zebra, Cynotilapia afra) and 3 sandy shore 'haps' (Copadichromis borleyi, Mchenga conophorus, Aulonocara jacobfreibergi)]
Sylvester, J.B., C.A. Rich, C. Yi, J.N. Peres, C. Houart, and J.T. Streelman. 2013. Competing signals drive telencephalon diversity. Nature Communications 4: 1745. doi:10.1038/ncomms2753 Abstract [Studied using Lake Malawi rock- and sand-dwelling cichlids]
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  Taborsky, B. 2006. The influence of juvenile and adult environments on life- history trajectories. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273 (1587): 741-750. Abstract [Studied in mouthbrooding cichlids]
Takahashi, K., M. Nishida, M. Yuma, and N. Okada. 2001. Retroposition of the AFC family of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) before and during the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi and related inferences about phylogeny. Journal of Molecular Evolution 53 (4-5): 496-507. popup abstract
Takahashi, K., and N. Okada. 2002. Mosaic structure and retropositional dynamics during evolution of subfamilies of short interspersed elements in African cichlids. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (8): 1303-1312. Abstract download full text
Takahashi, K., Y. Terai, M. Nishida, and N. Okada. 1998. A novel family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) from cichlids: The patterns of insertion of SINEs at orthologous loci support the proposed monophyly of four major groups of cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15 (4): 391-407. Abstract download full text [SINEs are "excellent markers of molecular phylogeny, since the integration of a SINE at a particular position in a genome can be considered an unambiguous derived homologous character." Perhaps they can be used to test the provocative claim of Moran, Kornfield, & Reinthal (1994) that several "Hap" genera are actually Mbuna.]
Takahashi, K., Y. Terai, M. Nishida, and N. Okada. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships and ancient incomplete lineage sorting among cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika as revealed by analysis of the insertion of retroposons. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 (11): 2057-2066. Abstract download full text
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Takahashi, R., K. Watanabe, M. Nishida, and M. Hori. 2007. Evolution of feeding specialization in Tanganyikan scale-eating cichlids: a molecular phylogenetic approach. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7 (1): 195. Abstract download full text
Takahashi, S., and M. Hori. 2005. Coexistence of competing species by the oscillation of polymorphisms. Journal of Theoretical Biology 235 (4): 591-596. Epub 2005 Mar 23. Abstract [In asymmetrical scale-eating Lake Tanganyika cichlids]
Takahashi, T. 2003a. Systematics of Xenotilapia Boulenger, 1899 (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Ichthyological Research 50: 36-47. doi:10.1007/s102280300005 Abstract
Takahashi, T. 2003b. Systematics of Tanganyikan cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyological Research 50: 367-382. doi:10.1007/s10228-003-0181-7 Abstract
Takahashi, T. 2004a. Phylogenetic analysis of Cyprichromini (Perciformes: Cichlidae) endemic to Lake Tanganyika and validation of the genus Paracyprichromis. Ichthyological Research 51: 1-4. doi:10.1007/s10228-003-0183-5 Abstract
Takahashi, T. 2004b. Morphological and genetic distinctness of rock and shell-bed dwelling Telmatochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in the south of Lake Tanganyika suggest the existence of two species. Journal of Fish Biology 65: 419-435. doi:10.1111/j.0022-1112.2004.00459.x Abstract
Takahashi, T. 2014. Greenwoodochromini Takahashi from Lake Tanganyika is a junior synonym of Limnochromini Poll (Perciformes: Cichlidae). Journal of Fish Biology [epub 12 Feb 2014 ahead of print]. doi:10.1111/jfb.12309 Abstract [Includes interesting comparative work on infraorbital bones of these cichlids]
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Takahashi, T., and M. Hori. 2008. Evidence of disassortative mating in a Tanganyikan cichlid fish and its role in the maintenance of intrapopulation dimorphism. Biology Letters 4 (5): 497-499. Abstract [In Perissodus microlepis]
Takahashi, T., and S. Koblmüller. 2011. The adaptive radiation of cichlid fish in Lake Tanganyika: a morphological perspective. International Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2011: 620754, 14 pp. doi:10.4061/2011/620754 Abstract download full text
Takahashi, T., and K. Nakaya. 2003. New species of Cyphotilapia (Perciformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Copeia 2003: 824-832. Abstract
Takahashi, T., H. Ochi, M. Kohda, and M. Hori. 2011. Invisible pair bonds detected by molecular analyses. Biology Letters 8 (3): 355-357. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.1006 Abstract download full text
Takeda, M., J. Kusumi, S. Mizoiri, M. Aibara, S.I. Mzighani, T. Sato, Y. Terai, N. Okada, and H. Tachida. 2013. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria. PLoS ONE 8 (9): e74088. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074088 Abstract download full text
Takeuchi, Y. , H. Ochi, M. Kohda, D. Sinyinza, and M. Hori. 2010. A 20-year census of a rocky littoral fish community in Lake Tanganyika. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 19 (2): 239-248. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0633.2010.00408.x Abstract
Takimoto, G., M. Higashi, and N. Yamamura. 2000. A deterministic genetic model for sympatric speciation by sexual selection. Evolution 54 (6): 1870-1881. popup abstract download full text
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Talling, J.F. 1986. The seasonality of phytoplankton in African lakes. Hydrobiologia 138: 139-160. Abstract
Talling, J.F., and I.B. Talling. 1965. The chemical composition of African lake waters. Internationale Revue der Gesamte Hydrobiologie 50 (3): 421-463. download full text (3.4 Mb)
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Tawil, P. 2002b. Description de Cynotilapia pulpican n. sp. (Pisces, Teleostei, Cichlidae), nouvelle espèce du lac Malawi, avec remarques sur les genres Cynotilapia, Microchromis, Maylandia et Metriaclima. l'An Cichlidé 2: 72-82. popup abstract [Another new species account published (alas!) in an aquarium publication, despite warnings by reputable ichthyologists about this highly undesirable practice. C. pulpican is the organism previously known as Pseudotropheus "likoma kingsizei."
Tawil, P. 2003. Aulonocara koningsi n. sp., un cichlidé nouveau du Lac Malawi apparenté à Aulonocara stuartgranti (Pisces: Teleostei: Cichlidae). L'an Cichlidé 3: 89-98. [This is variously reported to be the form previously known as Aulonocara "stuartgranti mbenji," A. "Mbenji," or A. "Blue Regal." See comment under preceding entry concerning taxonomic publication in hobby magazines and books. A. Konings, in his Cichlid Press site, provides a species summary and photo.]
Tawil, P. 2011. Description of a new cichlid species from Lake Malawi, with reexamination of Cynotilapia afra (Günther, 1893) and Microchromis zebroides Johnson, 1975. Cybium 35 (3): 201-211. Abstract [Tawil claims that Microchromis is distinguishable from Cynotilapia and names M. aurifrons, new species.]
Tawil, P., and R. Allgayer. 1987. Description de Aulonocara maylandi kandeensis subsp. n. (Pisces, Cichlidae) du lac Malawi. Cybium 11 (2): 159-166. popup abstract [The Aulonocara "Blue Orchid" of the aquarium trade]
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Taylor, M.I., F. Meardon, G. Turner, O. Seehausen, H.D.J. Mrosso, and C. Rico. 2002. Characterization of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in a Lake Victorian, haplochromine cichlid fish: a Pundamilia pundamilia x Pundamilia nyererei hybrid. Molecular Ecology Notes 2 (4): 443. Abstract download full text
Taylor, M.I., J.I. Morley, C. Rico, and S. Balshine. 2003. Evidence for genetic monogamy and female-biased dispersal in the biparental mouthbrooding cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus from Lake Tanganyika. Molecular Ecology 12 (11): 3173-3177. Abstract
Taylor, M.I., L. Rüber, and E. Verheyen. 2001. Microsatellites reveal high levels of population substructuring in the species-poor eretmodine cichlid lineage from Lake Tanganyika. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B - Biological Sciences) 268 (1469): 803-808. popup abstract download full text [Eretmodus cyanostictus is contrasted with Pseudotropheus zebra from Lake Malawi]
Taylor, M.I., G.F. Turner, R.L. Robinson, and J.L. Stauffer, Jr. 1998. Sexual selection, parasites and bower height skew in a bower-building cichlid fish. Animal Behaviour 56 (2): 379-384. Abstract
Taylor, M.I., and E. Verheyen. 2001. Microsatellite data reveals weak population substructuring in Copadichromis sp 'virginalis kajose', a demersal cichlid from Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Fish Biology 59 (3): 593-604. popup abstract
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Taylor, W.R., and G.C. Van Dyke. 1985. Revised procedures for staining and clearing small fishes and other vertebrates for bone and cartilage study. Cybium 9 (2): 107-119. [See also Dingerkus & Uhler (1977)]
Teesdale, C.H., and L.A. Chitsulo. 1983. Schistosomiasis in Malawi - a review. Malawi Epidemiological Quarterly 4: 10-36.
Terai, Y., Mayer, W.E., J. Klein, H. Tichy, and N. Okada. 2002. The effect of selection on a long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 99 (24): 15501-15506. Abstract download full text
Terai, Y., N. Morikawa, K. Kawakami, and N. Okada. 2002. Accelerated evolution of the surface amino acids in the WD-repeat domain encoded by the hagoromo gene in an explosively speciated lineage of east African cichlid fishes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (4): 574-578. Abstract download full text
Terai, Y., N. Morikawa, K. Kawakami, and N. Okada. 2003. The complexity of alternative splicing of hagoromo mRNAs is increased in an explosively speciated lineage in East African cichlids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100 (22): 12798-12803. Epub 20 October 2003. Abstract download full text
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Terai, Y., N. Morikawa, and N. Okada. 2002. The evolution of the pro-domain of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (bmp4) in an explosively speciated lineage of East African cichlid fishes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (9): 1628-1632. Abstract download full text
Terai, Y., O. Seehausen, T. Sasaki, K. Takahashi, S. Mizoiri, T. Sugawara, T. Sato, M. Watanabe, N. Konijnendijk, H.D. Mrosso, H. Tachida, H. Imai, Y. Shichida, and N. Okada. 2006. Divergent selection on opsins drives incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids. PLoS Biology 4 (12): e433 [Epub ahead of print] Abstract download full text
Terai, Y., K. Takahashi, M. Nishida, T. Sato, and N. Okada. 2003. Using SINEs to probe ancient explosive speciation: "Hidden" radiation of African cichlids? Molecular Biology and Evolution 20 (6):924-930. Abstract download full text
Terai, Y., K. Takahashi, and N. Okada. 1998. SINE cousins: The 3'-end tails of the two oldest and distantly related families of SINEs are descended from the 3' ends of LINEs with the same genealogical origin. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15 (11): 1460-1471. download full text
Terai, Y., N. Takezaki, W.E. Mayer, H. Tichy, N. Takahata, J. Klein, and N. Okada. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromine fish as revealed by short interspersed elements (SINEs). Journal of Molecular Evolution 58 (1): 64-78. Abstract
Teugels, G.G. 1986. A systematic revision of the African species of the genus Clarias (Pisces; Clariidae). Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren), Sciences Zoologiques 247. 199 pp.
Teugels, G.G., and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde. 1991. Tilapia. Pp. 482-508 in: Daget, J., J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels, and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.). Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. [Repeats the assertion that Tilapia sparrmanii occurs in Lake Malawi (p. 501)]
Thiele, J. 1900. Diagnosen neuer Arguliden-Arten. Zoologischer Anzeiger 23: 6-48. [Argulus africanus, Chonopeltis inermis]
Thiele, J. 1904. Beiträge zur Morphologie der Arguliden. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 2: 1-51.
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Thomas, D.S.G., R. Bailey, P.A. Shaw, J.A. Durcan, and J.S. Singarayer. 2009. Late Quaternary highstands at Lake Chilwa, Malawi: Frequency, timing and possible forcing mechanisms in the last 44 ka. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (5-6): 526-539. [Available online 11 December 2008] Abstract
Thomasson, T., and M.C. Banda. 1996. Depth distribution of fish species in southern Lake Malawi — Implications for fisheries management. Fisheries Bulletin No. 34. Malawi Fisheries Department, Government of Malawi, Lilongwe.
Thompson, A.B. 1995a. Eggs and larvae of Engraulicypris sardella. Pp. 179-199 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Thompson, A.B. 1995b. Fisheries potential. Pp. 179-199 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/ Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Thompson, A.B. 1996. Early life history of Engraulicypris sardella (Cyprinidae) in Lake Malawi. Journal of Plankton Research 18 (8): 1349-1368. Abstract
Thompson, A.B. 1999. Simulation of reproductive rate, prey selection and the survival of pelagic fish of the African Great Lakes. Hydrobiologia 407: 207-218. [The pelagic cyprinid of Lake Malawi mentioned in the abstract is the usipa, Engraulicypris sardella.] popup abstract
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Thompson, A.B., and E. Allison. 1997. Potential yield estimates of unexploited pelagic fish stocks in Lake Malawi. Fisheries Management and Ecology 4: 31-48. Abstract
Thompson, A.B., E.H. Allison, and B.P. Ngatunga. 1995. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish in the pelagic waters. Pp. 201-232 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/ Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Thompson, A.B., E.H. Allison, and B.P. Ngatunga. 1996a. Distribution and breeding biology of offshore pelagic cyprinids and catfish in Lake Malawi/Niassa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 47 (1): 27-42. popup abstract [Engraulicypris, Opsaridium, Synodontis, & Bathyclarias]
Thompson, A.B., E.H. Allison, and B.P. Ngatunga. 1996b. Distribution and breeding biology of offshore cichlids in Lake Malawi/Niassa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 47 (3): 235-254. popup abstract [Diplotaxodon, Rhamphochromis, and Copadichromis spp.]
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Thompson, A.B., E.H. Allison, B.P. Ngatunga, and A. Bulirani. 1995. Fish growth and breeding biology. Pp. 279-306 in: Menz, A. (ed.). The fishery potential and productivity of the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi/Niassa. Scientific report of the UK/SADC Pelagic Fish Resource Assessment Project. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, U.K.
Thompson, A.B., and A. Bulirani. 1993. Growth of usipa (Engraulicypris sardella) in Lake Malawi/Niassa. Pp. 87-99 in: Marshall, B.E., and R. Mubamba (eds.). Symposium on biology, stock assessment and exploitation of small pelagic fish species in the African Great Lakes region. CIFA Occasional Paper 19. Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
Thompson, A.B., and K. Irvine. 1997. Diet-shifts and food-dependent survival in Engraulicypris sardella (Cyprinidae) larvae from Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Plankton Research 19 (3): 287-301. Abstract [This fish is the Usipa]
Thompson, K.W. 1981. Karyotypes of six species of African Cichlidae (Pisces: Perciformes). Experientia [Basel] 37: 351-352. [One Lake Malawi species, Melanochromis auratus, is included. Examining 20 cells from 2 females, Thompson found that the 2N was 46 and the fundamental number was 56-58 in this species.]
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Thys van den Audenaerde, D.F.E. [1969]. An annotated bibliography of Tilapia (Pisces, Cichlidae). Documentation Zoologique de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren) 14, xl + 406 pp. [Publication year is 1969 not 1968 according to the Catalog of Fishes]
Tiercelin, J., J. Chorowicz, H. Bellon, J. Richert, J. Mwanbene, and F. Walgenwitz. 1988. East Africa Rift System: offset, age and tectonic significance of the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi intracontinental transcurrent fault zone. Tectonophysics 148: 241-252.
tkint, T., E. Verheyen, B. De Kegel, P. Helsen, and D. Adriaens. 2012. Dealing with food and eggs in mouthbrooding cichlids: structural and functional trade-offs in fitness related traits. PLoS ONE 7 (2): e31117. [In Haplochromis piceatus and H. fischeri of Lake Victoria] doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031117 Abstract download full text
Tobler, M. 2005. Feigning death in the Central American cichlid Parachromis friedrichsthalii. Journal of Fish Biology 66 (3): 877-881. Abstract download full text [Although focused on a neotropical cichlid, this paper makes comparisons with death-feigning hunting behavior in Nimbochromis livingstonii of Lake Malawi]
Tobler, M. 2006. The eggspots of cichlids: Evolution through sensory exploitation? Zeitschrift für Fischkunde 8 (1-2): 39-46. popup abstract
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Travers, R.A. 1984a. A review of the Mastacembeloidei, a suborder of synbranchiform teleost fishes. Part I: Anatomical descriptions. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 46 (1): 1-133.
Travers, R.A. 1984b. A review of the Mastacembeloidei, a suborder of synbranchiform teleost fishes. Part II: Phylogenetic analysis. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 47 (2): 83-150.
Travers, R.A. 1988. Diagnoses of a new African mastacembelid spiny-eel genus Aethiomastacembelus gen. nov. (Mastacembeloidei: Synbranchiformes). Cybium 12 (3): 255-257.
Tregenza, T., and R.K. Butlin. 1999. Speciation without isolation. Nature 400: 311-312. download full text [Nature illustrated this contribution with a color graphic that reproduced my photo of Dimidiochromis compressiceps — no fewer than 32× — without acknowledgment! After I pointed this out to the editors, an inconspicuous erratum was printed, correcting the omission]
Trendall, J. 1988a. The distribution and dispersal of introduced fish at Thumbi West Island in Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Fish Biology 33: 357-369. popup abstract
Trendall, J. 1988b. Recruitment of juvenile mbuna (Pisces: Cichlidae) to experimental rock shelters in Lake Malawi, Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 22 (2): 117-131. Abstract
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Trewavas, E. 1931. A revision of the cichlid fishes of the genus Lethrinops, Regan. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10) 7: 133-152. download full text
Trewavas, E. 1933. The cichlid fishes of Africa. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 145: 75-76. download full text
Trewavas, E. 1935. A synopsis of the cichlid fishes of Lake Nyasa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10) 16: 65-118. download full text 2.0 Mb; Updated now condensed and word-searchable
Trewavas, E. 1941. Nyasa fishes of the genus Tilapia and a new species from Portuguese East Africa. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (11): 294-306.
Trewavas, E. 1946. The types of African cichlid fishes described by Borodin in 1931 and 1936, and of two species described by Boulenger in 1901. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 116: 240-246. popup abstract download full text [See Borodin, 1936]
Trewavas, E. 1947. An example of "mimicry" in fishes. Nature 160: 120. [A note on Corematodus shiranus, which mimics Oreochromis squamipinnis and rasps scales from the caudal fin of this tilapia.] doi:10.1038/160120a0
Trewavas, E. 1949. The origin and evolution of the cichlid fisches [sic] of the Great African lakes, with special reference to Lake Nyasa. Comptes Rendus 13th Congrès International de Zoologie 1948: 365-368.
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Trewavas, E. 1964. A revision of the genus Serranochromis Regan (Pisces, Cichlidae). Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques, Number 125, 58 pp. popup abstract
Trewavas, E. 1966. Fishes of the genus Tilapia with four anal spines in Malawi, Rhodesia, Mozambique and southern Tanzania. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 74: 394-424.
Trewavas, E. 1973. On the cichlid fishes of the genus Pelmatochromis with the proposal of a new genus for P. congicus; on the relationship between Pelmatochromis and Tilapia and the recognition of Sarotherodon as a distinct genus. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 25: 1-26. download full text
Trewavas, E. 1981a. Nomenclature of the tilapias of southern Africa. Journal of the Limnological Society of Southern Africa 7 (1): 42. download full text
Trewavas, E. 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York: [xii] + 583 pp.
Trewavas, E. [1984a]. Nouvel examen des genres et sous-genres du complexe Pseudotropheus-Melanochromis du lac Malawi (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae). Revue Française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie 10 (4) 1983: 97-106. popup abstract download full text (6.7 Mb) [Redescriptions of Pseudotropheus williamsi and P. livingstonii, redefinition of Melanochromis based principally on the color pattern of horizontal stripes, and description of Pseudotropheus (Tropheops), new subgenus, for P. tropheops and relatives] English translation of description of subgenus Tropheops
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Trewavas, E. 1984b. Un nom et une description pour l'Aulonocara «Sulphur-head», poisson cichlidé du Lac Malawi. Revue Française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie 11 (1): 7-10. popup abstract download full text (Caution: 18 Mb) [Redescription of genus Aulonocara and description of A. maylandi]
Trewavas, E., and A. Konings. 1992. Spawning techniques in mouthbrooders. The Cichlids Yearbook, Volume 2: 93-97. Cichlid Press, St. Leon-Rot, Germany.
Trezise, A.E., and S.P. Collin. 2005. Opsins: evolution in waiting. Current Biology 15 (19): R794-R7966. Abstract
Tsuboi, T., A. Gonzalez-Voyer, and N. Kolm. 2014. Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014, 14: 39. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-39 Abstract download full text
Tsuboi, T., K. Matsumoto, A. Irie, T. Hirayama, H. Tsumura, S. Hirai, T. Satoh, M. Iwamura, S. Baba, and Y. Takayama. 2006. [A case report: Bilharzial schistosomiasis in the urinary bladder presented with gross hematuria.] Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica 52 (4): 281-283. [In Japanese]
Tudge, C. 1992. All fish bright and beautiful. New Scientist (8 Feb, No. 1807): ??-??. Abstract [Review of Konings (1990a)]
Turner, G.F. 1986. Sexual dichromatism and breeding behaviour in cichlids: preliminary notes. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren) 251: 21-24.
Turner, G. 1994a. Pallidochromis tokolosh, a new genus and species of deep water cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 5 (4): 377-383. popup abstract
Turner, G. 1994b. Description of a commercially important pelagic species of the genus Diplotaxodon (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Fish Biology 44: 799-807. [D. limnothrissa] popup abstract
Turner, G.F. 1994c. Speciation mechanisms in Lake Malawi cichlids: a critical review. Pp. 139-160 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
Turner, G.F. 1994d. Fishing and the conservation of the endemic fishes of Lake Malawi. Pp. 481-494 in Martens, K., B. Goddeeris, and G. Coulter (eds.), Speciation in ancient lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie - Advances in Limnology, Volume 44: X + 508 pages. ISBN 3-510-47045-1.
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Turner, G.F. 1995a. Management, conservation and species changes of exploited fish stocks in Lake Malawi. Pp. 365-395 in Pitcher, T.J. and P.J.B. Hart (eds), The impact of species changes in African lakes. Chapman and Hall, London.
Turner, G.F. 1995b. The lek paradox resolved? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10: 473-474.
Turner, G. 1996. Offshore cichlids of Lake Malawi. Cichlid Press, Lauenau, Germany; 240 pp. ISBN 3-928457-33-0. Publisher's blurb
Turner, G. 1997. Small fry go big time. New Scientist 155 (2093): 36-40.
Turner, G.F. 1999a. Explosive speciation of African cichlid fishes. Pp. 113-129 in Magurran, A.E., and R.M. May (eds.), Evolution of biological diversity. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-850305-9 (cloth), 0-19-850304-0 (paper). Publisher's blurb
Turner, G.F. 1999b. What is a fish species? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 9 (4): 281-297. popup abstract download full text
Turner, G.F. 2000. The nature of species in ancient lakes: Perspectives from the fishes of Lake Malawi. Pp. 39-60 in: Rossiter, A., and H. Kawanabe, eds. Ancient lakes: Biodiversity, ecology and evolution. Advances in Ecological Research, volume 31. Academic Press, London. popup abstract
Turner, G.F. 2001. Speciation in the pelagic zone of Lake Malawi. Cichlidae (January): 4-8.
Turner, G.F. 2002. Parallel speciation, despeciation and respeciation: implications for species definition. Fish and Fisheries 3: 225-229. Abstract download full text
Turner, G.F. 2007. Adaptive radiation of cichlid fish. Current Biology 17 (19): R827-R831. download full text
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Turner, G.F., and M.T. Burrows. 1995. A model of sympatric speciation by sexual selection. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B - Biological Sciences) 260 (1359): 287-292. popup abstract
Turner, G.F., and U. Falter. 1989. On the adoption of male-typical breeding coloration by female mouthbrooding cichlids. Journal of Fish Biology 34: 805-806. [The species reported is a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.]
Turner, G.F., A.S. Grimm, O.K. Mhone, R.L. Robinson, and T.J. Pitcher. 1991. The diet of Oreochromis lidole (Trewavas) and other chambo species in Lakes Malawi and Malombe. Journal of Fish Biology 39: 15-24.
Turner, G., and J.D. Howarth. 2001. Description of two new species of Mylochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 12 (3): 205-212. [Mylochromis chekopae and M. ensatus.]
Turner, G.F., T.J. Pitcher, and A.S. Grimm. 1989. Identification of Lake Malawi Oreochromis (Nyasalapia) species using multivariate morphometric techniques. Journal of Fish Biology 35: 799-812.
Turner, G.F., and R.L. Robinson. 1991. Ecology, morphology and taxonomy of the Lake Malawi Oreochromis (Nyasalapia) species flock. Annales de la Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren) 262: 23-28.
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Turner, G.F., R.L. Robinson, B.P. Ngatunga, P.W. Shaw, and G.R. Carvalho. 2001. Pelagic cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi/Nyasa. Pp. 287-302 in: Coleman, R.M. (ed.), Cichlid Research: State of the Art. Journal of Aquariculture & Aquatic Sciences, Volume 9, 391 pages.
Turner, G.F., R.L. Robinson, B.P. Ngatunga, P.W. Shaw, and G.R. Carvalho. 2002. Pelagic cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi/Nyasa: biology, management and conservation. Pp. 353-367 in Cowx, I.G. (ed.), Management and Ecology of Lake and Reservoir Fisheries. Fishing News Books, Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford. download full text (page proofs)
Turner, G.F., R.L. Robinson, P.W. Shaw, and G.R. Carvalho, G.R. 2004. Identification and biology of Diplotaxodon, Rhamphochromis and Pallidochromis. Pp. 198-251 in: Snoeks, J. (ed.). The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/ Niassa: Identification, distribution and taxonomy. Cichlid Press, El Paso, Texas; 360 pp.
Turner, G.F., O. Seehausen, M.E. Knight, C.J. Allender, and R.L. Robinson. 2001. How many species of cichlid fishes are there in African lakes? Molecular Ecology 10 (3): 793-806. Abstract download full text
Turner, G., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1998. Three new deep water cichlid fishes of the genus Diplotaxodon from Lake Malawi, with a redescription of Diplotaxodon ecclesi. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 8 (3): 239-252. [D. aeneus, D. apogon, & D. macrops.] popup abstract
Turner, G.F., D. Tweddle, and R.D. Makwinja. 1995. Changes in demersal cichlid communities as a result of trawling in southern Lake Malawi. Pp. 387-412 in Pitcher, T.J. and P.J.B. Hart (eds), The impact of species changes in African lakes. Chapman and Hall, London.
Turner, G.F., J. Witimani, R.L. Robinson, A.S. Grimm, and T.J. Pitcher. 1991. Reproductive isolation and nest sites of Lake Malawi chambo, Oreochromis (Nyasalapia) spp. Journal of Fish Biology 39: 775-782.
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Turner, J.L. 1977a. Changes in the size structure of cichlid populations of Lake Malawi resulting from bottom trawling. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34: 232-238. 
Turner, J.L. 1977b. Some effects of demersal trawling in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa) from 1968 to 1974. Journal of Fish Biology 10: 261-271. popup abstract
Turner, J.L. 1982a. Analysis of the catch and effort data of a purse seine fishery for Engraulicypris sardella at the southern end of Lake Malawi. Pp. 109-114 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Turner, J.L. 1982b. Analysis of purse seine and gill-net catch data off Nkhata Bay, Lake Malawi, from March 1980 to April 1981. Pp. 154-162 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Turner, J.L. 1982c. Lake flies, water fleas and sardines. Pp. 165-181 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
Turner, J.L., J.H. Magasa, and P. Degnbol. 1982. Distribution and abundance of larval Engraulicypris sardella in Lake Malawi from 1987 to 1980. Pp. 68-82 in: Biological studies on the pelagic ecosystem of Lake Malawi. FAO Technical Report 1. FI:DP/MLW/75/019.
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Tweddle, D. 1975. Age and growth of the catfish Bagrus meridionalis Günther in southern Lake Malawi. Journal of Fish Biology 7: 677-685.
Tweddle, D. 1981. A preliminary assessment of the bottom trawling potential of northern Lake Malawi. Luso: Journal of Science and Technology (Malawi) 2: 3-13. [Precise journal title uncertain; cited as "Luso. J. Sci. Technol. Malawi" in Owen et al. (1990). Library of Congress contains a record for Luso as "Malawi Journal of Science & Technology" (ISSN: 1019-7079), but under that name its vol. 1 no. 1 was published July 1992]
Tweddle, D. 1982a. A comparison of gill-net mounting techniques and different mesh sizes in northern Lake Malawi. Luso: Journal of Science and Technology (Malawi) 3: 47-65. [See note on journal name, previous entry]
Tweddle, D. 1982b. Fish breeding migrations in the North Rukuru area of Lake Malawi with a note on gillnet colour selectivity. Luso: Journal of Science and Technology (Malawi) 3: 67-74. [See note on journal name, Tweddle 1981]
Tweddle, D. 1983. Breeding behaviour of the mpasa, Opsaridium microlepis (Günther) Pisces: Cyprinidae), in Lake Malawi. Journal of the Limnological Society of Southern Africa 9: 23-28.
Tweddle, D. 1984. Snakes of the Lake Malawi National Park. Nyala 10 (1): 43-44.
Tweddle, D. 1987. An assessment of the growth rate of mpasa, Opsaridium microlepis (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Cyprinidae), by length frequency analysis. Journal of the Limnological Society of Southern Africa 13 (2): 52-57.
Tweddle, D. 1988a. Pied Kingfisher swallows prey on the wing. Nyala 12 (1-2): 81-82.
Tweddle, D. 1988b. A discussion of the problems associated with the collection and use of fisheries catch statistics in the SADCC region. Pp. 214-233 in: Report of SADCC Fisheries Statistics Workshop, Zambia - 25th-29th April, 1988.
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Tweddle, D. 1989. Lungfish re-established in Lake Malawi catchment area. Nyala 13 (1-2): 67-69.
Tweddle, D. 1991. A limnological bibliography of Malawi. Supplement one. CIFA Occasional Paper No. 13, Supplement 1. 18p. Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. download full text [See also Tweddle & Mkoko (1986) for initial bibliography]
Tweddle, D. 1992. Conservation and threats to the resources of Lake Malawi. Pp. 17-24 in: Lowe-McConnell, R.H., R.C.M. Crul, and F.C. Roest (eds.). Symposium on resource use and conservation of the African Great Lakes. Mitteilungen der Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie/Communications, Vol. 23. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. ISSN 0538-4680. popup abstract
Tweddle, D. 1993. River fishes of the Lake Malawi catchment area. Part 1: Fishes of intermittent drainages. Nyala 16 (2): 55-72.
Tweddle, D. 1996. Fish survey of Nkhotakota Wildlife Reserve. Investigational Report No. 53, J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
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Tweddle, D. 2000. The role of Nkhotakota Wildlife Reserve, Malawi, Africa, in the conservation of the mpasa, Opsaridium microlepis (Günther). Pp. 400-417 in Cowx, I.G. (ed.), Management and ecology of river fisheries. xi + 444 pp. ISBN 0852382502. Fishing News Books, Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford.
Tweddle, D. 2001. Threatened fishes of the world: Opsaridium microlepis (Günther, 1864) (Cyprinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 61 (1): 72. Abstract
Tweddle, D., S.B. Alimoso, and G. Sodzapanja. 1991a. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of the south east arm of Lake Malawi: 1976-1989, with a discussion of earlier data and the inter-relationships with the commercial fisheries. Malawi Fisheries Department, Traditional Fisheries Assessment Project Working Paper, TFAP/2.
Tweddle, D., S.B. Alimoso, and G. Sodzapanja. 1991b. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Lake Malombe, 1977-1989. Malawi Fisheries Department, Traditional Fisheries Assessment Project Working Paper, TFAP/1.
Tweddle, D., S.B. Alimoso, and G. Sodzapanja. 1994a. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Lake Malombe, 1976-1989. Fisheries Bulletin No. 11, 26 pp. Malawi Fisheries Department, Government of Malawi. download full text (877 Kb)
Tweddle, D., S.B. Alimoso, and G. Sodzapanja. 1994b. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of the South East Arm of Lake Malawi 1976-1989, with a discussion of earlier data and the inter-relationships with commercial fisheries. Fisheries Bulletin No. 13, 37 pp. Malawi Fisheries Department, Government of Malawi. download full text (1.14 Mb)
Tweddle, D., S.B. Alimoso, and G. Sodzapanja. 1994c. Analysis of catch and effort data for fisheries of South West Arm of Lake Malawi. Fisheries Bulletin No. 14, 17 pp. Malawi Fisheries Department, Government of Malawi. [Citation to be verified]
Tweddle, D., S.B. Alimoso, and G. Sodzapanja. 1994d. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Domira Bay 1976-1989. Fisheries Bulletin No. 15, 19 pp. Malawi Fisheries Department, Government of Malawi. download full text (560 Kb)
Tweddle, D., S.B. Alimoso, and G. Sodzapanja. 1994e. Analysis of catch and effort data for the fisheries of Nkhotakota area — Lake Malawi 1976-1989. Fisheries Bulletin No. 16, 28 pp. Malawi Fisheries Department, Government of Malawi. download full text (953 Kb)
Tweddle, D., and P. Bodington. 1988. A comparison of the effectiveness of black and white gillnets in Lake Malawi, Africa. Fisheries Research 6 (3): 257-269. Abstract
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Tweddle, D., and A. Bowa. 1991a. Gill-netting experiments in Lake Malawi, Africa. (1) Multicoloured gillnet trials, with a review of previous coloured net trials. Collected Reports on Fisheries Research in Malawi, Occasional Papers No. 1: 37-46. Overseas Development Administration, London.
Tweddle, D., and A. Bowa. 1991b. Gill-netting experiments in Lake Malawi, Africa. (2) A comparison of catches using nets with different mounting ratios. Collected Reports on Fisheries Research in Malawi, Occasional Papers No. 1: 37-46. Overseas Development Administration, London.
Tweddle, D., and R. Crossley. 1991. Effects of an earthquake on demersal cichlid fishes of southern Lake Malawi. Journal of Fish Biology 38 (2): 305-308. [Following two earthquakes of 5.7 & 6.5 on the Richter scale in March 1989, with epicenters near Salima, Malawi, a transient sharp decrease in the catch of demersal cichlids in the deeper parts of the southeast arm was documented. The authors rule out a major upwelling of anoxic water, and suggest that a layer of deoxygenated water expelled from the pores between the sediment grains by the earth movements may have been responsible.]
Tweddle, D., D.H. Eccles, C.B. Frith, G. Fryer, P.B.N. Jackson, D.S.C. Lewis, and R.H. Lowe-McConnell. 1998. Cichlid spawning structures — bowers or nests? Environmental Biology of Fishes 51: 107-109. popup abstract
Tweddle, D., and D.S.C. Lewis. 1979. The nature of the barrier separating the Lake Malawi and Zambesi fish faunas. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Number 39, Part 1, 9 pp. [See Tweddle and Willoughby (1979) for part 2.]
Tweddle, D., and D.S.C. Lewis. 1990. The biology of usipa (Engraulicypris sardella) in relation to fluctuations in productivity of Lake Malawi and species introductions. Collected Reports on Fisheries Research in Malawi, Occasional Papers No. 1: 67-72. Overseas Development Administration, London.
Tweddle, D., and J.H. Magasa. 1989. Assessment of multispecies cichlid fisheries of the southeast arm of Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 45 (2): 209-222. doi:10.1093/icesjms/45.2.209 Abstract
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Tweddle, D., and B.J. Mkoko. 1986. A limnological bibliography of Lake Malawi. CIFA Occasional Paper No. 13, 75 pages. Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. download full text [See also Tweddle (1991) for Supplement 1 (available online)]
Tweddle, D., and P.H. Skelton. 1993. River fishes of the Lake Malawi catchment area. Part 2: First record of the blotched catfish, Clarias stappersii Boulenger, in Malawi. Nyala 16 (2): 73-76.
Tweddle, D., and J.L. Turner. 1977. Age, growth and natural mortality rates of some cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi. Journal of Fish Biology 10: 385-398.
Tweddle, D., and N.G. Willoughby. 1979. The nature of the barrier separating the Lake Malawi and Zambesi fish faunas. An annotated checklist of the fish fauna of the river Shire south of Kapachira Falls, Malawi. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Number 39, Part 2, 12 pp. [See Tweddle and Lewis (1979) for part 1.]
Tweddle, D., and N.G. Willoughby. 1982. The distribution and identification of mormyrid fishes in Malawi, with notes on the synonymy of Marcusenius nyasensis and M. livingstonii (Mormyriformes: Mormyridae). Special Publications of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, No. 24 [unpaginated; ii + 9 + i pp.]. download full text [Provides distribution records of eight species, synonymizes Gnathonemus nyasensis Worthington with Marcusenius livingstonii (Boulenger), and gives a key to the mormyrids of Malawi]
Twentyman-Jones, V., A.J. Ribbink, and D. Voorvelt. 1997. Colour clues to incipient speciation of Pseudocrenilabrus philander (Teleostei, Cichlidae). South African Journal of Science 93 (11-12): 529-537. popup abstract
Twombly, S. 1983a. Seasonal and short term fluctuations in zooplankton abundance in tropical Lake Malawi. Limnology and Oceanography 28 (6): 1214-1224. download full text
Twombly, S. 1983b. Patterns of abundance and population dynamics of zooplankton in tropical Lake Malawi. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, viii + 309 pp. popup abstract
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Tyers, A.M., and G.F. Turner. 2013. Signal and preference divergence among populations of the non-endemic basal Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera (Perciformes: Cichlidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 180-188. doi:10.1111/bij.12105 Abstract
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Weyl, O.L.F., A.J. Booth, K.R. Mwakiyongo, and D.S. Mandere. 2005. Management recommendations for Copadichromis chrysonotus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Lake Malombe, Malawi, based on per-recruit analysis. Fisheries Research 71 (2): 165-173. doi:doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2004.08.025 Abstract Email Dr. Weyl
Weyl, O.L.F., J. Kazembe, A.J. Booth, and D.S. Mandere. 2004. An assessment of a light-attraction fishery in southern Lake Malawi. African Journal of Aquatic Science 29 (1): 1-11. popup abstract
Weyl, O.L.F., K.R. Mwakiyongo, and D.S. Mandere. 2004. An assessment of the nkacha net fishery of Lake Malombe, Malawi. African Journal of Aquatic Science 29 (1): 47-55. popup abstract
Weyl, O.L.F., T.E. Nyasulu, and B. Rusuwa. 2005. Assessment of catch, effort and species changes in the pair-trawl fishery of southern Lake Malawi, Malawi, Africa. Fisheries Management and Ecology 12: 395-402. Abstract
Weyl, O.L.F., A.J. Ribbink, and D. Tweddle. 2010. Lake Malawi: fishes, fisheries, biodiversity, health and habitat. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 13 (3): 241-254. doi:10.1080/14634988.2010.504695 Abstract
Weyl, O.L.F., and M.V. Weyl (eds.). 2001. Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium, 4th-9th June 2001. National Aquatic Resource Management Programme (NARMAP). Government of Malawi. [A gold mine of detailed recent information, freely available here through the generosity of Olaf Weyl] Complete: download full text (5.7 Mb) Abstracts only: download full text Workshop Reports: download full text
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Whitworth, J.A. 1993. Schistosomiasis. May be contracted through swimming in Lake Malawi. British Medical Journal 307 (6909): 936. [Letter]
Wilke, T., R. Väinölä, and F. Riedel (eds.). 2008. Patterns and processes of speciation in ancient lakes: Proceedings of the fourth Symposium on Speciation in Ancient Lakes, Berlin, Germany, September 4-8, 2006. Hydrobiologia 615 (1). Contents
Wilson, A.B., M. Glaubrecht, and A. Meyer. 2004. Ancient lakes as evolutionary reservoirs: evidence from the thalassoid gastropods of Lake Tanganyika. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 271: 529-536. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2624 download full text target="newwindow">Abstract download full text
Winkelmann, K., M.J. Genner, T. Takahashi, and L. Rüber. 2014. Competition-driven speciation in cichlid fish. Nature Communications 5 (3). [Studied in Telmatochromis temporalis of Lake Tanganyika] doi:10.1038/ncomms4412 Abstract
Wisenden, B.D. 1999. Alloparental care in fishes. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 9 (1): 45-70. doi:10.1023/A:1008865801329 Abstract [Not seen; mentions at least Iodotropheus sprengerae among L. Malawi fishes]
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Witte, F., B.S. Msuku, J.H. Wanink, O. Seehausen, E.F.B. Katunzi, P.C. Goudswaard, and T. Goldschmidt. 2000. Recovery of cichlid species in Lake Victoria: an examination of factors leading to differential extinction. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 10 (2): 233-241. doi:10.1023/A:1016677515930 Abstract
Woltering, M., T.C. Johnson, J.P. Werne, S. Schouten, and J.S. Sinninghe Damsté. 2011. Late Pleistocene temperature history of Southeast Africa: a TEX86 temperature record from Lake Malawi. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303 (1-4): 93–102. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.013 Abstract
Won, Y.-J., A. Sivasundar, Y. Wang, and J. Hey. 2005. On the origin of Lake Malawi cichlid species: A population genetic analysis of divergence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 102 (3 May, Suppl. 1): 6581-6586. Abstract download full text
Won, Y.-J., Y. Wang, A. Sivasundar, J. Raincrow, and J. Hey. 2006. Nuclear gene variation and molecular dating of the cichlid species flock of Lake Malawi. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (4): 828-837. [Epub 6 Feb 2006 ahead of print] Abstract
Wooster, M., G. Patterson, R. Loftie, and C. Sear. 2001. Derivation and validation of the seasonal thermal structure of Lake Malawi using multi-satellite AVHRR observations. International Journal of Remote Sensing 22 (15): 2953-2972. popup abstract
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World Bank. 1991. Fisheries and aquaculture research capabilities and needs in Africa: studies in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Mauritania, Morocco and Senegal. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Technical Paper 149: 1-73.
World Bank. 2000. Lake Malawi/Nyasa environmental management: Project concept document. Africa Regional Office, Southern and Eastern Africa Rural Development Operations.
Worthington, E.B. 1933. The fishes of Lake Nyasa (other than Cichlidae). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 285-316. [New species: Marcusenius nyasensis, Barbus macrotaenia, Labeo intermedius (non Nichols & Griscom; now L. worthingtoni), Bathyclarias longibarbis, B. nyasensis. Among the valuable information are Cuthbert Christy's habitat notes on his collecting localities.] download full text
Worthington, E.B. 1954. Speciation of fishes in African lakes. Nature 173: 1064-1067.
Worthington, E.B. 1996. Early research on East African lakes: An historical sketch. Pages 659-664 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
Worthington, E.B., and R. Lowe-McConnell. 1994. African lakes reviewed — Creation and destruction of biodiversity. Environmental Conservation 21 (3): 199-213. popup abstract
Wright, C.A., J. Klein, and D.H. Eccles. 1967. Endemic species of Bulinus (Mollusca: Planorbidae) in Lake Malawi (=Lake Nyasa). Journal of Zoology (London) 151: 199-209.
Wright, J.J. 2011. Conservative coevolution of Müllerian mimicry in a group of Rift Lake catfish. Evolution 65 (2): 395–407. [In Lake Tanganyika Synodontis spp.] doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01149.x Abstract
Wright, J.J., and R.M. Bailey. 2012. Systematic revision of the formerly monotypic genus Tanganikallabes (Siluriformes: Clariidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 165 (1): 121-142. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00789.x Abstract [T. alboperca and T. stewarti, new species]
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Wu, C.-I. 2001. The genic view of the process of speciation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14: 851-865. download full text [Brief mention of cichlid speciation; see commentary by van Alphen & Seehausen (2001)]
Wüst, A., G. Piepke, and J.D. Halfman. 1996. Combined effects of dissolved solids and temperature on the density stratification of Lake Malawi. Pages 183-204 in: Johnson, T.C., and E.O. Odada (eds). The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam and Toronto.
  Yairi, K. 1977. Preliminary account of the lake-floor topography of Lake Malawi in relation to the formation of the Malawi rift valley. Pages 51-69 in: Second preliminary report on African studies. Nagoya University, Japan.
Yairi, K., and Y. Saka. 1977. Tectonic note on the Livingstonia area, northern Malawi, in relation to the post-Karroo rift-faulting. 2nd Preliminary Report on African Studies, Nagoya University: 108-132.
Yanong, R.P., R. Francis-Floyd, E. Curtis, R.E. Klinger, M.E. Cichra, and I.K. Berzins. 2002. Algal dermatitis in cichlids. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220 (9): 1353-1358, 1314 [sic]. [Pseudotropheus zebra in Florida fish farms] Abstract
Yasindi, A.W., and W.D. Taylor. 2003. Abundance, biomass and estimated production of planktonic ciliates in Lakes Victoria and Malawi. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 6 (3): 289-297. popup abstract
Yemane, K., C. Siegenthaler, and K. Kelts. 1989. Lacustrine environment during Lower Beaufort (Upper Permian) Karoo Deposition in northern Malawi. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 70: 165-178.
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Yildirmak, M.T., F. Simsek, H. Gedik, and A. Kantürk. 2012. [A case of persistent urinary schistosomiasis transmitted through the lake Malawi]. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergizi 36 (3): 191-192. doi:10.5152/tpd.2012.46 download full text [Turkish] [Abstract: There are only few urinary schistosomiasis cases reported from Turkey. These recently diagnosed cases are either associated with overseas journeys or observed in foreign citizens visiting our country as afflicted with disease from abroad. Our case was infected when working in Africa and was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the bladder by mistake at the outset. The patient, who had recovered after a single-day praziquantel therapy, applied to our clinic due to a relapse after 21 months, underwent therapy with praziquantel for the second time. This case was presented for discussion with respect to the presence of a chronic disease despite therapy and the diagnostic dilemma.]
Yin, X. 2000. The water balance of the East African Great Lakes. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University. popup abstract
Yin, X., and S.E. Nicholson. 2000. Mesoscale precipitation and cloud patterns over the Rift Valley lakes and implications for regional hydrology. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography, WMO, pp. 317-318. Abstract
Young, K.A., M.J. Genner, M.P. Haesler, and D.A. Joyce. 2010. Sequential female assessment drives complex sexual selection on bower shape in a cichlid fish. Evolution 64 (8): 2246–2253. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.00984.x Abstract [In Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus]
Young, K.A., M.J. Genner, D.A. Joyce, and M.P. Haesler. 2009. Hotshots, hot spots, and female preference: exploring lek formation models with a bower-building cichlid fish. Behavioral Ecology 20 (3): 609-615. Abstract
Young, K.A., J.M. Whitman, and G.F. Turner. 2009. Secondary contact during adaptive radiation: A community matrix for Lake Malawi cichlids. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22 (4): 882-889. Epub 2009 Feb 14. Abstract
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Yuma, M., Y. Kada, S. Nakayama, A. Ambali, W. Msosa, H. Kabwazi, T. Sato, and S. Kobayashi. 1998. Local fish names in Malawi, Second Edition. Internal Report of JICA Research Cooperation Project "Lake Malawi Ecology Project" (1998-2001). Japan International Cooperation Agency.
Yuma, M., and T. Kondo. 1997. Interspecific relationships and habitat utilization among benthivorous cichlids. Pp. 89-103 in: Kawanabe, H., M. Hori, and M. Nagoshi (eds.). Fish communities in Lake Tanganyika. Kyoto University Press, Kyoto.
Yuma, M., T. Narita, M. Hori, and T. Kondo. 1998. Food resources of shrimp- eating cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika. Environmental Biology of Fishes 52: 371-378. Abstract
Yuma, M., O.A. Timoshkin, N.G. Melnik, I.V. Khanaev, and A. Ambali. 2006. Biodiversity and food chains on the littoral bottoms of Lakes Baikal, Biwa, Malawi and Tanganyika: Working hypotheses. Hydrobiologia 568 (Supplement 1): 95-99. Abstract
Zardoya, R., D.M. Vollmer, C. Craddock, J.T. Streelman, S. Karl, and A. Meyer. 1996. Evolutionary conservation of microsatellite flanking regions and their use in resolving the phylogeny of cichlid fishes (Pisces: Perciformes). Proceedings of the Royal Society, London (Series B) 263: 1589-1598. doi:10.1098/rspb.1996.0233 Abstract download full text
Zidana, H.K. 2009. Population genetics of the cichlid, Cynotilapia afra (Günther 1894), in its native and introduced ranges in Lake Malawi. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hull, 135 pp. popup abstract
Zidana, H., G.F. Turner, C. van Oosterhout, and B. Hänfling. 2009. Elevated mtDNA diversity in introduced populations of Cynotilapia afra (Günther 1894) in Lake Malawi National Park is evidence for multiple source populations and hybridization. Molecular Ecology 18: 4380-4389. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04362.x Abstract
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Last Update: 17 September 2014
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