What Does the Skeleton of a Malawi Cichlid Look Like?
|Neurocranium (skull) of a phylogenetically basal African cichlid, Heterochromis multidens from the Congo River. Abbreviations: B, blind cavity, not connected with lateral-line system; BOC, basioccipital; BS, basisphenoid; CC, external aperture of carotid canal; EO, epioccipital (epiotic); EOC, exoccipital; EOF, epioccipital facet for articulation with dorsal arm of posttemporal; F, frontal; IC, intercalar; IX, foramen of glossopharyngeal nerve; LE, lateral ethmoid; N, nasal; NLF1-5, lateral-line foramina; PA, parietal; PRO, prootic; PS, parasphenoid; PTO, pterotic; PTS, pterosphenoid; PV, vomer; SOC, supraoccipital; SPH, sphenotic; X, foramen of vagus nerve. Compare with next drawing. [From Oliver, 1984.]|
Below: Bones of the jaws and suspensorium of the left side in Otopharynx lithobates (87.2 mm SL) of the Malawi "Hap" flock. Abbreviations: AA, anguloarticular; DN, dentary; ECT, ectopterygoid; END, endopterygoid; HM, hyomandibular; MPT, metapterygoid; MX, maxillary; PAL, palatine; PM, premaxillary; POP, preopercular; Q, quadrate; RA, retroarticular; SYM, symplectic. The upper jaw consists of the premaxillary and maxillary; the lower jaw consists of the dentary, anguloarticular, and retroarticular. [From Oliver, 1984.]
Below: Upper gill arch elements of the right side in another Malawi haplochromine of the "Hap" flock, Nimbochromis venustus, 119 mm SL. Dorsal view shown in left half of drawing, ventral view of same elements in right half. Cartilage is stippled densely, bone lightly. Abbreviations: C-EB2, cartilaginous extension of second epibranchial; EAC, epibranchial accessory cartilage; EB1-4, epibranchials; GR, uppermost gill raker of first arch; PB1-3, (infra)pharyngobranchials; TP2-3-F, tooth plates fused with the associated pharyngobranchials; TP4, fourth tooth plate (unfused). [From Oliver, 1984.]
|Last Update: 22 January 2000
Web Author: M. K. Oliver, Ph.D.
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