The phylogeny of the haplochromine cichlids of Lake Kivu was studied using lepidological
characters. Only one species, Haplochromis astatodon was found to have a closer
relationship to a group outside Lake Kivu, namely Haplochromis sensu stricto. The
other 14 species form a monophyletic lineage that is part of a subdivision in the large
Lake Victoria–Edward–Kivu flock. The internal phylogeny of this lineage was resolved to
the species level.