Pseudotropheus callainos, a new species of the P. zebra complex, is distinguished
from other members of this complex by the blue color of the males, the blue and white color
morphs of the females, and the absence of vertical bars. This species is native to the Nkhata
Bay area of Lake Malawi, but has been transplanted into southern Lake Malawi. Multivariate
analysis of variance (MANOVA) demonstrates that clusters formed by plotting the sheared
second principal component (morphometric data) against the first factor score (meristic data)
of the transplanted and native populations are significantly different (P<0.01) from each
other. Furthermore, the northern (native) and southern (transplanted) populations of P.
aurora are both morphologically and ecologically different.