The number of species of cichlid found to host foreign offspring in mixed broods in Lake Malawi
is much greater than originally supposed. It is suggested that all species which show well
developed parental behaviour may have foreign fry mix with their broods on occasion. A variety
of species of fry were found in mixed broods. These come from two categories of fish: those
which apparently do not guard their free swimming fry; and those which have a well entrenched
phase of protective care. Although substrate spawners may encourage other fry to join their
broods it is argued that foreign young are unwelcome guests of mouthbrooders.